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Gender Inequality and Trade Liberalization: A Case Study of Pakistan


  • Ahmed, Naeem
  • Hyder, Kalim


The main focus of this study is to explore the impact of trade liberalization on gender inequalities in Pakistan. The overall gender inequality based on three dimensions, including labour market, education and health facilities are analyzed in this paper using data from 1973 to 2005. Exports and imports to GDP ratio, per capita GDP, and number of girls’ school to number of boys’ school ratio are identified as important determinants of overall gender inequality in Pakistan and gender inequality in labor market of Pakistan. Further, gender inequality in education attainment is explained by per capita GDP, number of girls’ school to number of boys’ school ratio and number of female teachers per school.

Suggested Citation

  • Ahmed, Naeem & Hyder, Kalim, 2006. "Gender Inequality and Trade Liberalization: A Case Study of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 16252, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Oct 2006.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:16252

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Zafar H. Ismail & Hafiz A. Pasha & A. Rauf Khan, 1994. "Cost Effectiveness in Primary Education: A Study of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 1169-1180.
    2. Remco H. Oostendorp, 2009. "Globalization and the Gender Wage Gap," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 23(1), pages 141-161, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Audi, Marc & Ali, Amjad, 2016. "Gender Gap and Trade Liberalization: An Analysis of some selected SAARC countries," MPRA Paper 83520, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Dobdinga C. Fonchamnyo & Nubonyin Hilda Fokong, 2017. "Educational Gender Gap, Economic Growth and Income Distribution: An Empirical Study of the Interrelationship in Cameroon," International Journal of Economics and Finance, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 9(3), pages 168-176, March.
    3. Siegmann, K.A. & Majid, H., 2014. "Empowering growth in Pakistan?," ISS Working Papers - General Series 595, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.

    More about this item


    Gender inequality; discrimination; trade liberalization; determinants; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination


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