Female Labor Force Participation in Pakistan and Some MENA Countries
The low-labor force participation rate of female in the MENA countries has been recognized and investigated by many researchers. The multidimensional nature of the issue demands a thorough investigation of different aspects of a region to better understand the factors that affect and, or influence the female labor force participation of that region. This study uses the main determinants found in the previous literature to examine their effects on labor force participation in 4 different countries from different regions but with similar characteristics. For our analysis, we use World Bank Data indicators 2011. We follow the data panel procedure to study the effect of factors, such as literacy rate, eduction, fertility rate, urbanization, trade openness, and per capita GDP on the rate of female labor participation; while accounting of the endogeneity of fertility and literacy rates. We study the effects of these variables using the pooled model, the fixed, and the random effects models. The results indicate that the fixed and random effects models outperform the pooled model. Moreover, the fixed effects and random effects models are equally appropriate in this case. The empirical results of the random effects model indicate that literacy and urbanization rates have a positive and significant effects on female labor participation. Variables such as fertility rate and per capita GDP have a negative and significant effects on female labor participation. Finally, female education enrollment and trade openness do not have a significant effect on FLFP in the countries considered in this study.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.saea.org/|
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Fatma El-Hamidi, 2008. "Trade Liberalization, Gender Segmentation, and Wage Discrimination: Evidence from Egypt," Working Papers 414, Economic Research Forum, revised 06 Jan 2008.
- Musleh-Ud Din & Ejaz Ghani & Omer Siddique, 2003. "Openness and Economic Growth in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 795-807.
- Nadia Youssef, 1971. "Social structure and the female labor force: The case of women workers in muslim Middle Eastern countries," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 8(4), pages 427-439, November.
- Aysit Tansel, 2001. "Economic Development and Female Labor Force Participation in Turkey: Time-Series Evidence and Cross-Province Estimates," ERC Working Papers 0105, ERC - Economic Research Center, Middle East Technical University, revised May 2001.
- Pervaiz, Zahid & Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Jan, Sajjad Ahmad & Chaudhary, Amatul R., 2011. "Gender inequality and economic growth: a time series analysis for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 37176, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2011.
- Nadereh Chamlou & Silvia Muzi & Hanane Ahmed, 2011. "Understanding the Determinants of Female Labor Force Participation in the Middle East and North Africa Region: The Role of Education and Social Norms in Amman," Working Papers 31, AlmaLaurea Inter-University Consortium.
- David Bloom & David Canning & Günther Fink & Jocelyn Finlay, 2009.
"Fertility, female labor force participation, and the demographic dividend,"
Journal of Economic Growth,
Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 79-101, June.
- David E. Bloom & David Canning & Günther Fink & Jocelyn E. Finlay, 2007. "Fertility, Female Labor Force Participation, and the Demographic Dividend," NBER Working Papers 13583, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bussmann, Margit, 2009. "The Effect of Trade Openness on Women's Welfare and Work Life," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1027-1038, June. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:saea13:143097. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.