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Trade Liberalization, Gender Segmentation, and Wage Discrimination: Evidence from Egypt

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  • Fatma El-Hamidi

    () (Department of Economics & GSPIA, University of Pittsburgh, USA)

Abstract

This study evaluates the impact of trade liberalization and reductions in trade barriers on gender wage inequality in Egypt by using recent Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey data (ELMPS 06) and comparing two years representing an early stage (1998) and an advanced stage in trade liberalization (2006). The analysis focuses on private sector workers, and compares workers in tradable sectors (sectors in direct competition with the foreign trade) with workers in non-tradable sectors (not in direct competition with foreign goods). Not only is wage discrimination observed regardless of sector of employment, but deterioration is also detected. Results also indicate that tradable sectors experience proportionately higher levels of wage differences between men and women than non-tradable sectors.

Suggested Citation

  • Fatma El-Hamidi, 2008. "Trade Liberalization, Gender Segmentation, and Wage Discrimination: Evidence from Egypt," Working Papers 414, Economic Research Forum, revised 06 Jan 2008.
  • Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:414
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Dani Rodrik, 1997. "Has Globalization Gone Too Far?," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 57.
    5. Fatma El-Hamidi & Mona Said, 2014. "Gender-based wage and occupational inequality in the new millenium in Egypt," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 48(1), pages 21-41, January-M.
    6. Revenga, Ana, 1997. "Employment and Wage Effects of Trade Liberalization: The Case of Mexican Manufacturing," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages 20-43, July.
    7. Jacob A. Mincer, 1974. "Schooling, Experience, and Earnings," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number minc74-1, June.
    8. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    9. Noel Gaston & Daniel Trefler, 1994. "Protection, Trade, and Wages: Evidence from U.S. Manufacturing," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 47(4), pages 574-593, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Shireen AlAzzawi, 2013. "Did Trade Liberalization Benefit Female Workers? Evidence on Wage and Employment Effects from Egypt," Working Papers 787, Economic Research Forum, revised Oct 2013.
    2. Audi, Marc & Ali, Amjad, 2016. "Gender Gap and Trade Liberalization: An Analysis of some selected SAARC countries," MPRA Paper 83520, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Aboohamidi, Abbas & Chidmi, Benaissa, 2013. "Female Labor Force Participation in Pakistan and Some MENA Countries," 2013 Annual Meeting, February 2-5, 2013, Orlando, Florida 143097, Southern Agricultural Economics Association.
    4. Mélika Ben Salem & Chahir Zaki, 2017. "Revisiting the Impact of Trade Openness on Informal and Irregular Employment in Egypt," Working Papers 1107, Economic Research Forum, revised 06 2002.
    5. Shireen AlAzzawi, 2015. "Endowments or Discrimination? Determinants of Household Poverty in Egypt," Working Papers 931, Economic Research Forum, revised Aug 2015.
    6. Shireen AlAzzawi, 2015. "Is there Feminization of Poverty in Egypt?," Working Papers 926, Economic Research Forum, revised Jul 2015.
    7. Rana Hendy & Chahir Zaki, 2013. "Assessing the Effects of Trade Liberalization on Wage Inequalities in Egypt: A Microsimulation Analysis," The International Trade Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1), pages 63-104, March.
    8. Chahir Zaki, 2011. "On Trade Policies and Wage Disparity in Egypt: Evidence from Microeconomic Data," Working Papers 606, Economic Research Forum, revised 08 Jan 2011.
    9. Irène Selwaness & Chahir Zaki, 2013. "Assessing the Impact of Trade Reforms on Informality in Egypt," Working Papers 759, Economic Research Forum, revised Jun 2013.

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