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Gender-based wage and occupational inequality in the new millenium in Egypt


  • Fatma El-Hamidi
  • Mona Said

    (University of Pittsburgh, USA
    American University in Cairo, Egypt)


This paper adds to the existing literature on the Egyptian labor market by examining the extent to which the treatment of women in the Egyptian private labor market has evolved, and if occupational segregation has affected gender wage gaps in the newly transformed Egyptian economy. T he paper tracks the current trend of gender based wage gaps, and evaluates the role of occupational segregation in explaining these gaps in the Egyptian private labor market. Comparing the years 2000 and 2004, and arranging occupations in three broad categories, findings of this study point to a wider occupational segregation and increased crowding of women in few jobs, which are becoming a more serious issue in pay differences than pure pay discrimination for both professional and blue collar women. Pay discrimination for white collar workers is not as severe as in professional and blue collar jobs. Therefore, policies that target inter-occupational components to close the wage gap may have far-reaching effects on professional and blue-collar workers, whereas policies targeting equal pay for equal jobs will have a greater success for white-collar workers.

Suggested Citation

  • Fatma El-Hamidi & Mona Said, 2014. "Gender-based wage and occupational inequality in the new millenium in Egypt," Journal of Developing Areas, Tennessee State University, College of Business, vol. 48(1), pages 21-41, January-M.
  • Handle: RePEc:jda:journl:vol.48:year:2014:issue1:pp:21-41

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    Cited by:

    1. Shireen AlAzzawi, 2015. "Is there Feminization of Poverty in Egypt?," Working Papers 926, Economic Research Forum, revised Jul 2015.
    2. Alexandra Cortés Aguilar & María Alejandra Flórez Vera, 2016. "Diferencias salariales por género en el departamento de Santander - Colombia," Apuntes del Cenes, Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, vol. 35(61), pages 267-302, January.
    3. Emanuela Ghignoni & Francesco Pastore, 2023. "The gender wage gap in Egypt: public versus private sector," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 44(8), pages 1511-1534, May.
    4. Krafft Caroline & Assaad Ragui, 2021. "Introducing the Jordan Labor Market Panel Survey 2016," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 12(1), pages 1-42, January.
    5. Tansel, Aysit & Keskin, Halil Ibrahim & Ozdemir, Zeynel Abidin, 2020. "Public-private sector wage gap by gender in Egypt: Evidence from quantile regression on panel data, 1998–2018," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 135(C).
    6. Fatma El-Hamidi, 2008. "Trade Liberalization, Gender Segmentation, and Wage Discrimination: Evidence from Egypt," Working Papers 414, Economic Research Forum, revised 06 Jan 2008.
    7. Lobna M. Abdellatif & Mohamed Ramadan & Sarah A. Elbakry, 2017. "How Gender Biased Are Female-Headed Household Transfers in Egypt?," Working Papers 1126, Economic Research Forum, revised 08 Oct 2017.
    8. Shireen AlAzzawi, 2015. "Endowments or Discrimination? Determinants of Household Poverty in Egypt," Working Papers 931, Economic Research Forum, revised Aug 2015.
    9. Krafft Caroline & Assaad Ragui & Rahman Khandker Wahedur, 2021. "Introducing the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey 2018," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 12(1), pages 1-40, January.
    10. Burke Ronald J. & El-Kot Ghada & Wolpin Jacob, 2016. "Sex Differences in Work Experiences and Work Outcomes among Egyptian Managers and Professionals: An Exploratory Study," Journal of Intercultural Management, Sciendo, vol. 8(1), pages 7-29, January.
    11. Ahmed Fayez Abdelgouad, 2014. "Labor Law Reforms and Labor Market Performance in Egypt," Working Paper Series in Economics 314, University of Lüneburg, Institute of Economics.
    12. Shireen AlAzzawi, 2013. "Did Trade Liberalization Benefit Female Workers? Evidence on Wage and Employment Effects from Egypt," Working Papers 787, Economic Research Forum, revised Oct 2013.
    13. Shireen Al Azzawi, 2010. "The Dynamics of Poverty and Inequality in an Era of Economic Liberalization: The Case of Egypt," Working Papers 539, Economic Research Forum, revised 09 Jan 2010.

    More about this item


    Occupational segregation; wage decomposition; gender wage gap; Egypt;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J71 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Discrimination - - - Hiring and Firing
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • C20 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - General


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