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The impact of women’s education and employment on their empowerment: an empirical evidence from household level survey


  • Sofia Riaz

    () (National College of Business Administration and Economics Lahore)

  • Zahid Pervaiz

    () (National College of Business Administration and Economics Lahore)


This study is an attempt to investigate the impact of women’s education and employment on their empowerment. Secondary data of Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012–2013 has been used for Binary Logistic regression analysis. Women’s participation in decision making has been used as a proxy of women empowerment. According to our measure, women are consider empowered if they have participation in decisions regarding their own health care, mobility, spending of household income, major household purchases and decision regarding contraceptive use. Results show that both women’s education and employment play an important role in women empowerment. Educated women are more likely to participate in decision making regarding their own health care, major household purchases, visits to family and relatives, spending of household earnings and decision regarding contraceptive use as compared to uneducated women. Employment of women has also been found positively associated with their participation in decisions regarding their own health care, major household purchases, visits to family or relatives and spending of household earning.

Suggested Citation

  • Sofia Riaz & Zahid Pervaiz, 2018. "The impact of women’s education and employment on their empowerment: an empirical evidence from household level survey," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 52(6), pages 2855-2870, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:qualqt:v:52:y:2018:i:6:d:10.1007_s11135-018-0713-x
    DOI: 10.1007/s11135-018-0713-x

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Paul Schultz, T., 2002. "Why Governments Should Invest More to Educate Girls," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 207-225, February.
    2. Lupin Rahman & Vijayendra Rao, 2004. "The Determinants of Gender Equity in India: Examining Dyson and Moore's Thesis with New Data," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(2), pages 239-268, June.
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    6. Chaudhary, Amatul R. & Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Pervaiz, Zahid, 2012. "An analysis of different approaches to women empowerment: a case study of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 37784, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Pervaiz, Zahid & Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Jan, Sajjad Ahmad & Chaudhary, Amatul R., 2011. "Gender inequality and economic growth: a time series analysis for Pakistan," MPRA Paper 37176, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2011.
    8. Naila Kabeer, 1999. "Resources, Agency, Achievements: Reflections on the Measurement of Women's Empowerment," Development and Change, International Institute of Social Studies, vol. 30(3), pages 435-464, July.
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    10. Stephan Klasen & Dana Sch�ler, 2011. "Reforming the Gender-Related Development Index and the Gender Empowerment Measure: Implementing Some Specific Proposals," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 1-30, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Muhammad Tariq Majeed & Faiza Kiran, 2019. "Women’s decision making power and child labor: evidence from Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 53(4), pages 2175-2197, July.
    2. B Pradeep Kumar, 2020. "Does Gender Status Translate into Economic Participation of Women? Certain Evidence from Kerala," Shanlax International Journal of Economics, Shanlax International Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 50-56, December.


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