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Individual and Households Determinants of Women Empowerment: Application to the Case of Egypt


  • Ragui Assaad

    () (University of Minnesota)

  • Hanan Nazier

    () (Cairo University)

  • Racha Ramadan

    () (Cairo University)


This research deals with women’s empowerment as an outcome of interest by defining the different individual and socio-demographic determinants that affect women’s empowerment in the Egyptian society. The paper analyzed two dimensions of women’s empowerment; the decision-making and the mobility aspects of Egyptian women. Using the Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS) 2012, we estimated a decision-making index and a mobility index. Our results came in line with the literature; age, education, employment, poverty status, number of children, having an adult son in addition to a woman’s husband, and her father’s characteristics appeared as significant determinants of empowerment. Further, most of these determinants, showed varying impact depending on the dimension of empowerment studied. The regional context was found to be very important in explaining Egyptian women’s empowerment. Context was not only found to be an important determinant of women’s empowerment as measured by our two indices, but it was also found to affect the impact of the other individual and socio demographic determinants on women’s empowerment.

Suggested Citation

  • Ragui Assaad & Hanan Nazier & Racha Ramadan, 2014. "Individual and Households Determinants of Women Empowerment: Application to the Case of Egypt," Working Papers 867, Economic Research Forum, revised Nov 2014.
  • Handle: RePEc:erg:wpaper:867

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Esther Duflo, 2003. "Grandmothers and Granddaughters: Old-Age Pensions and Intrahousehold Allocation in South Africa," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 17(1), pages 1-25, June.
    2. Sarah Mosedale, 2005. "Assessing women's empowerment: towards a conceptual framework," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(2), pages 243-257.
    3. Shireen J. Jejeebhoy & Zeba A. Sathar, 2001. "Women's Autonomy in India and Pakistan: The Influence of Religion and Region," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 27(4), pages 687-712, December.
    4. Rania Roushdy, 2004. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation in Egypt: Does Women’s Empowerment Lead to Greater Investments in Children?," Working Papers 0410, Economic Research Forum, revised 01 2004.
    5. Khan, Safdar Ullah & Awan, Rabia, 2011. "Contextual Assessment of Women Empowerment and Its Determinants: Evidence from Pakistan," MPRA Paper 30820, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Chaudhary, Amatul R. & Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Pervaiz, Zahid, 2012. "An analysis of different approaches to women empowerment: a case study of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 37784, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Deepa Narayan, 2005. "Measuring Empowerment : Cross Disciplinary Perspectives," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 7441, Juni.
    8. Soiliou Namoro & Rania Roushdy, 2009. "Intrahousehold Resource Allocation In Egypt: Women Empowerment And Investment In Children," Middle East Development Journal (MEDJ), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 1(01), pages 105-121.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tuccio, Michele & Wahba, Jackline, 2018. "Return migration and the transfer of gender norms: Evidence from the Middle East," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(4), pages 1006-1029.
    2. Hanan Nazier & Racha Ramadan, 2017. "Marriage Outcomes and Women Empowerment After Marriage: A Three Countries Story," Working Papers 1074, Economic Research Forum, revised 04 Jun 2017.
    3. Ragui Assaad & Hanan Nazier & Rasha Ramadan, 2015. "Empowerment is a Community Affair: Community Level Determinants of Married Women's Empowerment in Egypt," Working Papers 959, Economic Research Forum, revised Oct 2015.

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