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An analysis of different approaches to women empowerment: a case study of Pakistan


  • Chaudhary, Amatul R.
  • Chani, Muhammad Irfan
  • Pervaiz, Zahid


Women empowerment has attracted the attention of researchers as an active area of research since 1980s. It can be viewed as an ultimate end as well as a mean to achieve other development goals. The present study is an attempt to investigate how consciousness /sensitization of women about their rights, economic empowerment of women and women’s overall development can be helpful in achieving the goal of women’s empowerment. The study uses data for the period of 1996 to 2009 for Pakistan. Empirical results reveal that consciousness of women about their rights, economic empowerment of women and women’s overall development have positive and significant effect on women’s empowerment as measured by Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) index. Granger Causality Test confirms the existence of bi-directional causality between women’s overall development and women’s empowerment. A unidirectional causality exists between sensitization of women and women’s empowerment.

Suggested Citation

  • Chaudhary, Amatul R. & Chani, Muhammad Irfan & Pervaiz, Zahid, 2012. "An analysis of different approaches to women empowerment: a case study of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 37784, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:37784

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Granger, C. W. J., 1988. "Causality, cointegration, and control," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 551-559.
    2. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    3. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    4. Toda, Hiro Y. & Yamamoto, Taku, 1995. "Statistical inference in vector autoregressions with possibly integrated processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1-2), pages 225-250.
    5. Gustav Ranis & Frances Stewart, 2005. "Dynamic Links between the Economy and Human Development," Working Papers 8, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    6. Vasanth Kripa & Vazhoor Gopalan Surendranathan, 2008. "Social Impact and Women Empowerment through Mussel Farming in Kerala, India," Development, Palgrave Macmillan;Society for International Deveopment, vol. 51(2), pages 199-204, June.
    7. Jigna Trivedi & P K Priyan & Vinay Bhinde, 2011. "The Role of Dairy Cooperatives in Women Empowerment," The IUP Journal of Agricultural Economics, IUP Publications, vol. 0(1), pages 41-51, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ragui Assaad & Hanan Nazier & Racha Ramadan, 2014. "Individual and Households Determinants of Women Empowerment: Application to the Case of Egypt," Working Papers 867, Economic Research Forum, revised Nov 2014.
    2. Ragui Assaad & Hanan Nazier & Rasha Ramadan, 2015. "Empowerment is a Community Affair: Community Level Determinants of Married Women's Empowerment in Egypt," Working Papers 959, Economic Research Forum, revised Oct 2015.

    More about this item


    Women Empowerment; labour force participation; Gender Development; Gender inequality;

    JEL classification:

    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J23 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Demand

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