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Lending in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods in California: the performance of CRA lending during the subprime meltdown

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  • Elizabeth Laderman
  • Carolina Reid

Abstract

The current scale of mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures - particularly in the subprime market - has sparked a renewed debate over the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and the regulations governing home mortgage lending. On one side, detractors argue that the CRA helped to precipitate the current crisis by encouraging lending in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods (Walker 2008). On the other side, advocates of the CRA point to a number of reasons why the regulation shouldn?t be blamed for the current subprime crisis. ; What has been missing in this debate has been an empirical examination of the performance of loans made by institutions regulated under the CRA, versus those made by independent mortgage banks. The ability to conduct this research has been limited by the lack of a dataset that links information on loan origination with information on loan performance. In this study, we use a unique dataset that joins lender and origination information from the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) reports with data on loan performance from Lender Processing Services, Inc. Applied Analytics (LPS).2 We thus have access to information on borrower characteristics (including race, income, and credit score), loan characteristics (including its loan-to-value ratio, whether it was a fixed or adjustable rate mortgage, and the existence of a prepayment penalty), institutional characteristics (whether the lending institution was regulated under the CRA and the loan source), and loan performance (delinquency and foreclosure).

Suggested Citation

  • Elizabeth Laderman & Carolina Reid, 2008. "Lending in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods in California: the performance of CRA lending during the subprime meltdown," Community Development Working Paper 2008-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedfcw:2008-05
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bocian, Debbie Gruenstein & Ernst, Keith S. & Li, Wei, 2008. "Race, ethnicity and subprime home loan pricing," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 60(1-2), pages 110-124.
    2. Jessica Holmes & Jonathan Isham & Ryan Petersen & Paul M. Sommers, 2007. "Does Relationship Lending Still Matter in the Consumer Banking Sector? Evidence from the Automobile Loan Market," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 88(2), pages 585-597, June.
    3. Eric S. Belsky & Michael H. Schill & Anthony M.J. Yezer, 2001. "The effect of the Community Reinvestment Act of bank and thrift home purchase mortgage lending," Proceedings 794, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    4. Paul Calem & Jonathan Hershaff & Susan Wachter, 2004. "Neighborhood patterns of subprime lending: Evidence from disparate cities," Housing Policy Debate, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 603-622.
    5. Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn B. Canner, 2007. "The 2006 HMDA data," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), vol. 93(Sep), pages 73-109, September.
    6. Yuliya Demyanyk & Otto Van Hemert, 2011. "Understanding the Subprime Mortgage Crisis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(6), pages 1848-1880.
    7. Kristopher S. Gerardi & Adam Hale Shapiro & Paul S. Willen, 2007. "Subprime outcomes: risky mortgages, homeownership experiences, and foreclosures," Working Papers 07-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    8. Mark Doms & Frederick T. Furlong & John Krainer, 2007. "Subprime mortgage delinquency rates," Working Paper Series 2007-33, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    9. Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn B. Canner, 2006. "Higher-priced home lending and the 2005 HMDA data," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), vol. 92(Sep), pages 123-166, September.
    10. Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 1999. "Trends in home purchase lending: consolidation and the Community Reinvestment Act," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), vol. 85(Feb), pages 81-102, February.
    11. Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 1996. "Credit risk, credit scoring, and the performance of home mortgages," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), vol. 82(Jul), pages 621-648, July.
    12. Douglas D. Evanoff & Lewis M. Segal, 1996. "CRA and fair lending regulations: resulting trends in mortgage lending," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, vol. 20(Nov), pages 19-46.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lei Ding & Leonard I. Nakamura, 2017. "“Don't Know What You Got Till It’s Gone” — The Effects of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) on Mortgage Lending in the Philadelphia Market," Working Papers 17-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
    2. Park, Kevin A., 2016. "FHA loan performance and adverse selection in mortgage insurance," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 82-97.
    3. Chan, Sewin & Gedal, Michael & Been, Vicki & Haughwout, Andrew, 2013. "The role of neighborhood characteristics in mortgage default risk: Evidence from New York City," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 100-118.
    4. Arnab Chakraborty & Dustin Allred & Robert H. Boyer, 2013. "Zoning Restrictiveness and Housing Foreclosures: Exploring a New Link to the Subprime Mortgage Crisis," Housing Policy Debate, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(2), pages 431-457, April.
    5. Gary A. Dymski & Jesus Hernandez & Lisa Mohanty, 2011. "Race, Power, and the Subprime/Foreclosure Crisis: A Mesoanalysis," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_669, Levy Economics Institute.
    6. Gary Dymski & Jesus Hernandez & Lisa Mohanty, 2013. "Race, Gender, Power, and the US Subprime Mortgage and Foreclosure Crisis: A Meso Analysis," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 124-151, July.
    7. Drew Dahl, 2010. "Does flexibility hinder financial regulation? The case of CRA enforcement in the USA," Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 18(3), pages 193-200, July.
    8. Katrin B. Anacker & Kristen B. Crossney, 2013. "Analyzing CRA Lending During the Tsunami in Subprime Lending and Foreclosure in the Philadelphia MSA," Housing Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(4), pages 529-552, June.

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    Keywords

    Bank loans; Community development;

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