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Trends in home purchase lending: consolidation and the Community Reinvestment Act

Author

Listed:
  • Robert B. Avery
  • Raphael W. Bostic
  • Paul S. Calem
  • Glenn B. Canner

Abstract

Consolidation among banking institutions has substantially changed the structure of the banking industry. Between 1975 and 1997, the number of commercial banks and savings associations declined more than 40 percent. Over the same broad period, the market for home mortgage lending has also changed substantially. Notably, home mortgage lending is no longer primarily the province of banking institutions operating in the communities in which they have banking offices. In recent decades, mortgage and finance companies and banking organizations operating outside their local communities have gained a significant share of the mortgage market. These changes have fueled debate regarding their effects on the provision of home mortgage loans. One particular concern is that, as a consequence of these changes, lower-income and minority borrowers and borrowers in lower-income and minority neighborhoods may face reduced access to mortgage credit. ; This article examines the relationship between consolidation among banking organizations in local markets and changes in home purchase lending over the 1993-97 period, both in terms of total lending and lending to lower-income and minority borrowers and neighborhoods. Because credit availability is believed to be essential to the economic health and vitality of neighborhoods, the article also examines the relationship between consolidation and changes in home purchase lending by institutions in those areas where they have responsibilities under the Community Reinvestment Act.

Suggested Citation

  • Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 1999. "Trends in home purchase lending: consolidation and the Community Reinvestment Act," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Feb, pages 81-102.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgrb:y:1999:i:feb:p:81-102:n:v.85no.2
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    File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/bulletin/1999/0299lead.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. David B. Gordon & Ross Levine, 1988. "The capital flight "problem."," International Finance Discussion Papers 320, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    2. Steven B. Kamin & Robert B. Kahn & Ross Levine, 1989. "External debt and developing country growth," International Finance Discussion Papers 352, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Elizabeth Laderman & Carolina Reid, 2008. "Lending in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods in California: the performance of CRA lending during the subprime meltdown," Community Development Investment Center Working Paper 2008-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    2. Robert Avery & Katherine Samolyk, 2004. "Bank Consolidation and Small Business Lending: The Role of Community Banks," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 25(2), pages 291-325, April.
    3. Raphael W. Bostic & Breck L. Robinson, 2004. "The impact of CRA agreements on community banks," Proceedings 916, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    4. Bostic, Raphael W & Surette, Brian J, 2001. "Have the Doors Opened Wider? Trends in Homeownership Rates by Race and Income," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 411-434, November.
    5. Kenneth Temkin & Roberto Quercia & George Galster, 2000. "The impact of secondary mortgage market guidelines on affordable and fair lending: A reconnaissance from the front lines," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, pages 29-52.
    6. Bostic Raphael & Paulson Anna L & Mehran Hamid & Saidenberg Marc, 2005. "Regulatory Incentives and Consolidation: The Case of Commercial Bank Mergers and the Community Reinvestment Act," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, pages 1-27.
    7. Stuart A. Gabriel & Stuart S. Rosenthal, 2006. "Secondary Mortgage Markets and Access to Credit: 1992-2002," Working Paper 8569, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    8. AKM Rezaul Hossain, 2004. "The Past, Present and Future of Community Reinvestment Act (CRA): A Historical Perspective," Working papers 2004-30, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    9. Raphael W. Bostic & Breck L. Robinson, 2003. "Do CRA Agreements Influence Lending Patterns?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 23-51, March.
    10. Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Glenn B. Canner, 2003. "Assessing the CRA's Necessity and Efficiency," Working Paper 8606, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    11. Maxim Moroz, 2016. "Depreciation Takes into Account the Difference between the Production Function and Value of Fixed Assets," Economic Studies journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 1, pages 24-74.
    12. Bostic, Raphael W. & Robinson, Breck L., 2004. "The impact of CRA agreements on community banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 3069-3095, December.
    13. Raphael W. Bostic & Brian J. Surette, 2004. "Market Forces or CRA-induced Externalities: What Accounts for the Increase in Mortgage Lending to Lower-Income Communities?," Working Paper 8592, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.

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