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Have the doors opened wider? trends in homeownership rates by race and income

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  • Raphael W. Bostic
  • Brian J. Surette

Abstract

Homeownership among U.S. families increased notably in recent years, from 63.9% in 1989 to 66.2% in 1998. This paper examines this trend and the factors contributing to it. We find that (1) homeownership has risen for all racial, ethnic, and income groups, (2) the differences in homeownership between minority and non-minority families and between middle- income and lower-income families declined significantly, and (3) changes in family-related characteristics explain homeownership trends among only the top two income quintiles. Among the lower two income quintiles, family-related characteristics explain almost none of the increase in homeownership. This pattern of results suggests that changes in mortgage and housing markets and changes in the regulations that govern those markets, such as CRA and HMDA, account for the increase in homeownership among lower-income families.

Suggested Citation

  • Raphael W. Bostic & Brian J. Surette, 2000. "Have the doors opened wider? trends in homeownership rates by race and income," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-31, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2000-31
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    9. Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 1999. "Trends in home purchase lending: consolidation and the Community Reinvestment Act," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), vol. 85(Feb), pages 81-102, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Coulson, N. Edward & Dalton, Maurice, 2010. "Temporal and ethnic decompositions of homeownership rates: Synthetic cohorts across five censuses," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 155-166, September.
    2. Eva Sierminska & Alena Bicáková, 2007. "Homeownership Inequality and the Access to Credit Markets. Can Credit Availability Explain Cross-country Differences in the Inequality of Homeownership across Income of Young Households?," LWS Working papers 5, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    3. Barakova, Irina & Bostic, Raphael W. & Calem, Paul S. & Wachter, Susan M., 2003. "Does credit quality matter for homeownership?," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 318-336, December.
    4. Barbara A. Wiens‐Tuers, 2004. "There's No Place Like Home," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(4), pages 881-896, October.
    5. Tracy M. Turner & Daigyo Seo, 2007. "Investment Risk And The Transition Into Homeownership," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 229-253, May.
    6. Ron J. Feldman, 2002. "Mortgage rates, homeownership rates, and government-sponsored enterprises," Annual Report, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, vol. 16(1), pages 4-23.
    7. David Weil & Archon Fung & Mary Graham & Elena Fagotto, 2006. "The effectiveness of regulatory disclosure policies," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(1), pages 155-181.
    8. Stuart Gabriel & Gary Painter, 2004. "Mobility, Residential Location, and the American Dream: The Intra-Metropolitan Geography of Minority Homeownership: Los Angeles, Chicago, and Washington D.C," Working Paper 8599, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    9. Tracy M. Turner & Marc T. Smith, 2009. "Exits From Homeownership: The Effects Of Race, Ethnicity, And Income," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(1), pages 1-32, February.
    10. Durba Chakrabarty & Michael J. Osei & John V. Winters & Danyang Zhao, 2019. "Which immigrant and minority homeownership rates are gaining ground in the US?," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 43(2), pages 273-297, April.
    11. Chakrabarty, Durba & Osei, Michael J. & Winters, John V. & Zhao, Danyang, 2017. "Are Immigrant and Minority Homeownership Rates Gaining Ground in the US?," IZA Discussion Papers 10852, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    12. Fesselmeyer, Eric & Le, Kien T. & Seah, Kiat Ying, 2012. "A household-level decomposition of the white–black homeownership gap," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 52-62.
    13. Song Han, 2004. "Discrimination in Lending: Theory and Evidence," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 5-46, July.
    14. Jian Chen & David H. Downs, 2013. "Property Tax and Tenure Choice: Implications for China," International Real Estate Review, Global Social Science Institute, vol. 16(3), pages 323-343.
    15. Oberg, Phillip Michael, 2017. "The housing bubble and the evolution of the homeownership gap," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 25-35.
    16. Mark Doms & John Krainer, 2007. "Innovations in mortgage markets and increased spending on housing," Working Paper Series 2007-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    17. Talya D. Thomas, 2018. "Homeownership: What Does Houston Habitat for Humanity Homeowners Have to Say?," Societies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-21, September.
    18. Prashant Das & N. Edward Coulson & Alan Ziobrowski, 2019. "Caste, Faith, Gender: Determinants of Homeownership in Urban India," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 59(1), pages 27-55, July.
    19. Zhou Yu, 2003. "Housing Tenure Choice of Taiwanese Immigrants: A Different Path to Residential Assimilation," Working Paper 8611, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    20. Stuart A. Gabriel & Gary Painter, 2003. "Intra-Metropolitan Mobility, Residential Location and Homeownership Choice Among Minority and White Households: Estimates of a Nested Multinomial Logit Model," Working Paper 8618, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    21. Zhou Yu, 2003. "Immigration and Sprawl: Race/Ethnicity, Immigrant Status, and Residential Mobility in Household Location Choice," Working Paper 8612, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    22. Stuart A. Gabriel & Gary Painter, 2008. "Mobility, Residential Location and the American Dream: The Intrametropolitan Geography of Minority Homeownership," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 36(3), pages 499-531, September.
    23. Raphael W. Bostic & Brian J. Surette, 2004. "Market Forces or CRA-induced Externalities: What Accounts for the Increase in Mortgage Lending to Lower-Income Communities?," Working Paper 8592, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    24. Turner, Tracy M. & Luea, Heather, 2009. "Homeownership, wealth accumulation and income status," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 104-114, June.
    25. Song Han, 2011. "Creditor Learning and Discrimination in Lending," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 1-27, October.

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