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Have the doors opened wider? trends in homeownership rates by race and income


  • Raphael W. Bostic
  • Brian J. Surette


Homeownership among U.S. families increased notably in recent years, from 63.9% in 1989 to 66.2% in 1998. This paper examines this trend and the factors contributing to it. We find that (1) homeownership has risen for all racial, ethnic, and income groups, (2) the differences in homeownership between minority and non-minority families and between middle- income and lower-income families declined significantly, and (3) changes in family-related characteristics explain homeownership trends among only the top two income quintiles. Among the lower two income quintiles, family-related characteristics explain almost none of the increase in homeownership. This pattern of results suggests that changes in mortgage and housing markets and changes in the regulations that govern those markets, such as CRA and HMDA, account for the increase in homeownership among lower-income families.

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  • Raphael W. Bostic & Brian J. Surette, 2000. "Have the doors opened wider? trends in homeownership rates by race and income," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2000-31, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2000-31

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Francine D. Blau & John W. Graham, 1990. "Black-White Differences in Wealth and Asset Composition," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 321-339.
    2. Douglas Evanoff & Lewis Segal, 1997. "Strategic Responses to Bank Regulation: Evidence From HMDA Data," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 11(1), pages 69-93, February.
    3. Long, James E & Caudill, Steven B, 1992. "Racial Differences in Homeownership and Housing Wealth, 1970-1986," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(1), pages 83-100, January.
    4. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    5. DiPasquale, Denise & Glaeser, Edward L., 1999. "Incentives and Social Capital: Are Homeowners Better Citizens?," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 354-384, March.
    6. Lewis M. Segal & Daniel G. Sullivan, 1998. "Trends in homeownership: race, demographics, and income," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 53-72.
    7. Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 1999. "Trends in home purchase lending: consolidation and the Community Reinvestment Act," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Feb, pages 81-102.
    8. Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 1996. "Credit risk, credit scoring, and the performance of home mortgages," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jul, pages 621-648.
    9. Arthur B. Kennickell & Martha Starr-McCluer & Annika E. Sunden, 1997. "Family finances in the U.S.: recent evidence from the Survey of Consumer Finances," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Jan, pages 1-24.
    10. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
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    Cited by:

    1. Coulson, N. Edward & Dalton, Maurice, 2010. "Temporal and ethnic decompositions of homeownership rates: Synthetic cohorts across five censuses," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 155-166, September.
    2. Eva Sierminska & Alena Bicáková, 2007. "Homeownership Inequality and the Access to Credit Markets. Can Credit Availability Explain Cross-country Differences in the Inequality of Homeownership across Income of Young Households?," LWS Working papers 5, LIS Cross-National Data Center in Luxembourg.
    3. Barakova, Irina & Bostic, Raphael W. & Calem, Paul S. & Wachter, Susan M., 2003. "Does credit quality matter for homeownership?," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 318-336, December.
    4. Tracy M. Turner & Daigyo Seo, 2007. "Investment Risk And The Transition Into Homeownership," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(2), pages 229-253.
    5. Ron J. Feldman, 2002. "Mortgage rates, homeownership rates, and government-sponsored enterprises," Annual Report, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, pages 4-23.
    6. David Weil & Archon Fung & Mary Graham & Elena Fagotto, 2006. "The effectiveness of regulatory disclosure policies," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(1), pages 155-181.
    7. Stuart Gabriel & Gary Painter, 2004. "Mobility, Residential Location, and the American Dream: The Intra-Metropolitan Geography of Minority Homeownership: Los Angeles, Chicago, and Washington D.C," Working Paper 8599, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    8. Tracy M. Turner & Marc T. Smith, 2009. "Exits From Homeownership: The Effects Of Race, Ethnicity, And Income," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(1), pages 1-32.
    9. Chakrabarty, Durba & Osei, Michael J. & Winters, John V. & Zhao, Danyang, 2017. "Are Immigrant and Minority Homeownership Rates Gaining Ground in the US?," IZA Discussion Papers 10852, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    10. Fesselmeyer, Eric & Le, Kien T. & Seah, Kiat Ying, 2012. "A household-level decomposition of the white–black homeownership gap," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 52-62.
    11. Jian Chen & David H. Downs, 2013. "Property Tax and Tenure Choice: Implications for China," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 16(3), pages 323-343.
    12. repec:eee:quaeco:v:65:y:2017:i:c:p:25-35 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Mark Doms & John Krainer, 2007. "Innovations in mortgage markets and increased spending on housing," Working Paper Series 2007-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    14. Zhou Yu, 2003. "Housing Tenure Choice of Taiwanese Immigrants: A Different Path to Residential Assimilation," Working Paper 8611, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    15. Stuart A. Gabriel & Gary Painter, 2003. "Intra-Metropolitan Mobility, Residential Location and Homeownership Choice Among Minority and White Households: Estimates of a Nested Multinomial Logit Model," Working Paper 8618, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    16. Zhou Yu, 2003. "Immigration and Sprawl: Race/Ethnicity, Immigrant Status, and Residential Mobility in Household Location Choice," Working Paper 8612, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    17. Raphael W. Bostic & Brian J. Surette, 2004. "Market Forces or CRA-induced Externalities: What Accounts for the Increase in Mortgage Lending to Lower-Income Communities?," Working Paper 8592, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
    18. Turner, Tracy M. & Luea, Heather, 2009. "Homeownership, wealth accumulation and income status," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 104-114, June.
    19. Song Han, 2011. "Creditor Learning and Discrimination in Lending," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 40(1), pages 1-27, October.

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