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Bases demographiques de la montee de l'emploi et des gains chez les meres seules au Canada et aux Etats-Unis, 1980 a 2000

  • Hou, Feng
  • Picot, Garnett
  • Myers, Karen
  • Myles, John
Registered author(s):

    Malgre des reformes relativement modestes du regime de bien-etre au Canada par rapport aux Etats Unis, les taux d'emploi et la remuneration des meres seules ont progresse depuis 1980 presque d'un meme ordre de grandeur dans ces deux pays. Nous allons montrer que la plupart des hausses au Canada et une partie appreciable de l'evolution aux Etats-Unis s'expliquent par la dynamique de la succession des cohortes et du vieillissement de la population, la generation nombreuse et plus scolarisee du baby-boom ayant remplace les anciennes cohortes et ayant elle-meme accede a la quarantaine. Au Canada comme aux Etats-Unis, les effets demographiques sont le principal facteur expliquant la montee de l'emploi et des gains chez les meres seules plus agees (40 ans et plus). Chez les meres plus jeunes en revanche, ce qui a surtout joue, c'est l'evolution du comportement sur le marche du travail et d'autres variables non mesurees. Dans l'ensemble, l'evolution demographique a predomine au Canada, mais non aux Etats-Unis, et ce, pour deux raisons : a) les meres seules sont bien plus agees au Canada qu'aux Etats-Unis; b) dans le sens meme de la these de la reforme du bien-etre, l'evolution des comportements a eu bien plus d'ampleur chez les meres seules plus jeunes aux Etats-Unis.

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    Paper provided by Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques in its series Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche with number 2008305f.

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    Date of creation: 07 Mar 2008
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    Handle: RePEc:stc:stcp3f:2008305f
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    Web page: http://www.statcan.gc.ca

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    1. Even, W.E. & Macpherson, D.A., 1992. "Employer Size and Compensation: The Role of Worker Characteristics," Working Papers 1992_09_5, Department of Economics, Florida State University.
    2. Francine D. Blau & John W. Graham, 1989. "Black-White Differences in Wealth and Asset Composition," NBER Working Papers 2898, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Michael Baker & Jonathan Gruber & Kevin Milligan, 2006. "Universal Childcare, Maternal Labor Supply, and Family Well-Being," Working Papers id:547, eSocialSciences.
    4. Hou, Feng & Picot, Garnett & Myers, Karen & Myles, John, 2006. "Pourquoi l'emploi et les gains ont-ils augmente chez les meres seules durant les annees 1980 et 1990?," Direction des etudes analytiques : documents de recherche 2006282f, Statistics Canada, Direction des etudes analytiques.
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    10. Hanming Fang & Michael P. Keane, 2004. "Assessing the Impact of Welfare Reform on Single Mothers," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 35(1), pages 1-116.
    11. Hanratty, Maria J & Blank, Rebecca M, 1992. "Down and Out in North America: Recent Trends in Poverty Rates in the United States and Canada," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 107(1), pages 233-54, February.
    12. Ronald Oaxaca, 1971. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," Working Papers 396, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
    13. David Card & John E. DiNardo, 2002. "Skill-Biased Technological Change and Rising Wage Inequality: Some Problems and Puzzles," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(4), pages 733-783, October.
    14. Rebecca M. Blank, 2002. "Evaluating Welfare Reform in the United States," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1105-1166, December.
    15. Julie Ann McMullin & Lorraine Davies & Gale Cassidy, 2002. "Welfare Reform in Ontario: Tough Times in Mothers' Lives," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 28(2), pages 297-313, June.
    16. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
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