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CRA and fair lending regulations: resulting trends in mortgage lending

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Listed:
  • Douglas D. Evanoff
  • Lewis M. Segal

Abstract

This article provides background on the evolution of Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) and fair lending regulations, summarizes the relevant economic literature, and evaluates the effectiveness of the regulations by analyzing recent trends in mortgage lending activity. Are the trends in line with the intent of the regulations? Can the trends by attributed to the regulations?

Suggested Citation

  • Douglas D. Evanoff & Lewis M. Segal, 1996. "CRA and fair lending regulations: resulting trends in mortgage lending," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Nov, pages 19-46.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhep:y:1996:i:nov:p:19-46:n:v.20no.6
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    File URL: http://www.chicagofed.org/digital_assets/publications/economic_perspectives/1996/epnd96b.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Christopher P. Beshouri & Dennis C. Glennon, 1996. "CRA as "market development" or "tax": an analysis of lending decisions and economic development," Proceedings 523, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    5. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162.
    6. James A. Berkovec & Glenn B. Canner & Stuart A. Gabriel & Timothy H. Hannan, 1995. "Mortgage discrimination and FHA loan performance," Proceedings 456, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
    7. Michael H. Schill & Susan M. Wachter, "undated". "A Tale of Two Cities: Racial and Ethnic Geographic Disparities in Home Mortgage Lending in Boston and Philadelphia," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 16-93, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    8. Douglas Evanoff & Lewis Segal, 1997. "Strategic Responses to Bank Regulation: Evidence From HMDA Data," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 11(1), pages 69-93, February.
    9. Glenn B. Canner & Wayne Passmore, 1994. "Residential lending to low-income and minority families: evidence from the 1992 HMDA data," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Feb, pages 79-108.
    10. Calomiris, Charles W & Kahn, Charles M & Longhofer, Stanley D, 1994. "Housing-Finance Intervention and Private Incentives: Helping Minorities and the Poor," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 26(3), pages 634-674, August.
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    12. Anthony M.J. Yezer & Robert F. Phillips & Robert P. Trost, 1994. "Bias in estimates of discrimination and default in mortgage lending: the effects of simultaneity and self-selection," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, pages 197-222.
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    15. Munnell, Alicia H. & Geoffrey M. B. Tootell & Lynn E. Browne & James McEneaney, 1996. "Mortgage Lending in Boston: Interpreting HMDA Data," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 25-53, March.
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    24. Robert Avery & Patricia Beeson & Paul Calem, 1997. "Using HMDA Data as a Regulatory Screen for Fair Lending Compliance," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 11(1), pages 9-42, February.
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    26. Bates, Timothy M & Bradford, William D, 1980. " An Analysis of the Portfolio Behavior of Black-Owned Commercial Banks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 35(3), pages 753-768, June.
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    29. Eric Rosenblatt, 1997. "A Reconsideration Of Discrimination In Mortgage Underwriting With Data From A National Mortgage Bank," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 11(1), pages 109-131, February.
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    31. Brimmer, Andrew F, 1971. "The Black Banks: An Assessment of Performance and Prospects," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 26(2), pages 379-405, May.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Elizabeth Laderman & Carolina Reid, 2008. "Lending in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods in California: the performance of CRA lending during the subprime meltdown," Community Development Investment Center Working Paper 2008-05, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
    2. Gregory Squires & Sally O'Connor, 2001. "Access to capital: Milwaukee's continuing small business lending gaps," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 29(2), pages 9-46, December.
    3. Glenn B. Canner & Elizabeth Laderman & Andreas Lehnert & Wayne Passmore, 2002. "Does the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) cause banks to provide a subsidy to some mortgage borrowers?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-19, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    4. Bostic, Raphael W. & Robinson, Breck L., 2004. "The impact of CRA agreements on community banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(12), pages 3069-3095, December.
    5. Drew Dahl & Douglas Evanoff & Michael Spivey, 2003. "The Timing and Persistence of CRA Compliance Ratings," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 23(2), pages 113-132, April.
    6. Black, Harold A. & Robinson, Breck L. & Schweitzer, Robert L., 2001. "Comparing lending decisions of minority-owned and White-owned banks: Is there discrimination in mortgage lending?," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 23-39.
    7. Bostic Raphael & Paulson Anna L & Mehran Hamid & Saidenberg Marc, 2005. "Regulatory Incentives and Consolidation: The Case of Commercial Bank Mergers and the Community Reinvestment Act," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-27, April.
    8. Song Han, 2001. "On the Economics of Discrimination in Credit Markets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-02, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    9. AKM Rezaul Hossain, 2004. "The Past, Present and Future of Community Reinvestment Act (CRA): A Historical Perspective," Working papers 2004-30, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    10. Raphael W. Bostic & Breck L. Robinson, 2003. "Do CRA Agreements Influence Lending Patterns?," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 31(1), pages 23-51, March.
    11. Robert L. Lacy & John R. Walter, 2002. "What can price theory say about the Community Reinvestment Act?," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 1-27.
    12. Nothaft, Frank E. & Perry, Vanessa G., 2002. "Do mortgage rates vary by neighborhood? Implications for loan pricing and redlining," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 244-265, September.
    13. Lewis M. Segal & Daniel G. Sullivan, 1998. "Trends in homeownership: race, demographics, and income," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Q II, pages 53-72.
    14. Neil Bhutta, 2008. "Giving credit where credit is due? the Community Reinvestment Act and mortgage lending in lower-income neighborhoods," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2008-61, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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