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Mortgage Redlining: Race, Risk, and Demand


  • Holmes, Andrew
  • Horvitz, Paul


Charges that geographical redlining is widely practiced by mortgage lenders and is associated with racial discrimination have received much attention. However, empirical research in this area has yet to document a convincing answer to the question of whether redlining even exists. Much of the previous research in this area has suffered from failure to account for variations in risk and/or failure to adequately control for geographical differences in demand. This study addresses these problems in an effort to determine whether the disparity in the flow of mortgage credit can be explained by differences in risk and demand. Copyright 1994 by American Finance Association.

Suggested Citation

  • Holmes, Andrew & Horvitz, Paul, 1994. " Mortgage Redlining: Race, Risk, and Demand," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 81-99, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jfinan:v:49:y:1994:i:1:p:81-99

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. James Kau & Donald Keenan & Henry Munneke, 2012. "Racial Discrimination and Mortgage Lending," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 289-304, August.
    2. Ping Cheng & Zhenguo Lin & Yingchun Liu, 2011. "Do Women Pay More for Mortgages?," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 43(4), pages 423-440, November.
    3. Ross, Stephen L. & Tootell, Geoffrey M. B., 2004. "Redlining, the Community Reinvestment Act, and private mortgage insurance," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 278-297, March.
    4. Douglas D. Evanoff & Lewis M. Segal, 1996. "CRA and fair lending regulations: resulting trends in mortgage lending," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Nov, pages 19-46.
    5. Patrick Bayer & Fernando Ferreira & Stephen L. Ross, 2014. "Race, Ethnicity and High-Cost Mortgage Lending," NBER Working Papers 20762, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Gary A. Dymski & Jesus Hernandez & Lisa Mohanty, 2011. "Race, Power, and the Subprime/Foreclosure Crisis: A Mesoanalysis," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_669, Levy Economics Institute.
    7. Gary Dymski & Jesus Hernandez & Lisa Mohanty, 2013. "Race, Gender, Power, and the US Subprime Mortgage and Foreclosure Crisis: A Meso Analysis," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 124-151, July.
    8. Wheeler, Christopher H. & Olson, Luke M., 2015. "Racial differences in mortgage denials over the housing cycle: Evidence from U.S. metropolitan areas," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 33-49.
    9. Stephen L. Ross, 2005. "The Continuing Practice and Impact of Discrimination," Working papers 2005-19, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2006.
    10. George H. Lentz & Ko Wang, 1998. "Residential Appraisal and the Lending Process: A Survey of Issues," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 15(1), pages 11-40.
    11. Patrick Bayer & Fernando Ferreira & Stephen L. Ross, 2016. "What Drives Racial and Ethnic Differences in High Cost Mortgages? The Role of High Risk Lenders," Working Papers 2016-005, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    12. Nothaft, Frank E. & Perry, Vanessa G., 2002. "Do mortgage rates vary by neighborhood? Implications for loan pricing and redlining," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 244-265, September.
    13. C. Sirmans & Barrett Slade, 2012. "National Transaction-based Land Price Indices," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 45(4), pages 829-845, November.
    14. Jeffrey M. Lacker, 1995. "Neighborhoods and banking," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 13-38.
    15. Ping Cheng & Zhenguo Lin & Yingchun Liu, 2015. "Racial Discrepancy in Mortgage Interest Rates," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 51(1), pages 101-120, July.
    16. Johnson, Shane A. & Sarkar, Salil K., 1996. "The valuation effects of the 1977 Community Reinvestment Act and its enforcement," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 783-803, June.

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