Giving credit where credit is due? the Community Reinvestment Act and mortgage lending in lower-income neighborhoods
I identify and quantify the mortgage supply effect of the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA), a law mandating that banks help provide credit in lower-income neighborhoods, by exploiting a discontinuity in the selection rule determining which census tracts CRA targets. Using a comprehensive source of micro data on MSA mortgage applications, I find that CRA affects bank lending primarily in large MSA's, where banks are most scrutinized. The analysis indicates that CRA's effect on bank originations was about 4% between 1994 and 1996, and expanded to 8% in 1997-2002, consistent with the timing of a reform strengthening CRA. I provide some evidence that marginal loans go to atypical, potentially higher-risk borrowers. The results also indicate net "crowd-in": lending to targeted tracts by unregulated institutions rises in post-reform years, in particular to those areas that have had relatively low home purchase volume in the recent past, consistent with a model of information externalities in credit markets. Finally, using changes in tract eligibility status following the release of Census 2000 data as an additional source of variation, I find that CRA increased bank lending to newly targeted tracts in large MSA's by 4-5% in 2004 and 2005.
|Date of creation:||2008|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 20th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20551|
Web page: http://www.federalreserve.gov/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/fedsorder.html|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ben S. Bernanke, 2007. "The Community Reinvestment Act: its evolution and new challenges," Speech 272, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Imbens, Guido W. & Lemieux, Thomas, 2008.
"Regression discontinuity designs: A guide to practice,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 142(2), pages 615-635, February.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Working Papers 13039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Guido Imbens & Thomas Lemieux, 2007. "Regression Discontinuity Designs: A Guide to Practice," NBER Technical Working Papers 0337, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul S. Calem & Susan Wachter, 1998.
"Community Reinvestment and Credit Risk: Evidence from an Affordable Home Loan Program,"
Zell/Lurie Center Working Papers
306, Wharton School Samuel Zell and Robert Lurie Real Estate Center, University of Pennsylvania.
- Paul S. Calem & Susan M. Wachter, 1999. "Community Reinvestment and Credit Risk: Evidence from an Affordable-Home-Loan Program," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 27(1), pages 105-134.
- Robert B. Avery & Raphael W. Bostic & Glenn B. Canner, 2000. "CRA special lending programs," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Nov, pages 711-731.
- Jeffrey M. Lacker, 1995. "Neighborhoods and banking," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 13-38.
- Caplin, Andrew & Leahy, John, 1998.
"Miracle on Sixth Avenue: Information Externalities and Search,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(446), pages 60-74, January.
- Caplin, A. & Leahy, J., 1993. "Miracle on Sixth Avenue: Information Externalities and Search," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1665, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Bostic Raphael & Paulson Anna L & Mehran Hamid & Saidenberg Marc, 2005.
"Regulatory Incentives and Consolidation: The Case of Commercial Bank Mergers and the Community Reinvestment Act,"
The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy,
De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-27, April.
- Raphael W. Bostic & Hamid Mehran & Anna L. Paulson & Marc R. Saidenberg, 2002. "Regulatory incentives and consolidation: the case of commercial bank mergers and the Community Reinvestment Act," Working Paper Series WP-02-06, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Robert B. Avery & Paul S. Calem & Glenn B. Canner, 2003. "The effects of the Community Reinvestment Act on local communities," Proceedings 878, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Dennis R. Capozza & Ryan D. Israelsen & Thomas A. Thomson, 2005. "Appraisal, Agency and Atypicality: Evidence from Manufactured Homes," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 33(3), pages 509-537, 09.
- Raphael W. Bostic & Brian J. Surette, 2004. "Market Forces or CRA-induced Externalities: What Accounts for the Increase in Mortgage Lending to Lower-Income Communities?," Working Paper 8592, USC Lusk Center for Real Estate.
- Michael H. Schill & Susan M. Wachter, 1994.
"Borrower and neighborhood racial and income characteristics and financial institution mortgage application screening,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, pages 223-243.
- Schill, Michael H & Wachter, Susan M, 1994. "Borrower and Neighborhood Racial and Income Characteristics and Financial Institution Mortgage Application Screening," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 223-39, November.
- Millon Cornett, Marcia & De, Sankar, 1991. "Medium of Payment in Corporate Acquisitions: Evidence from Interstate Bank Mergers," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 23(4), pages 767-76, November.
- Ling, David C. & Wachter, Susan M., 1998. "Information Externalities and Home Mortgage Underwriting," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 317-332, November.
- Douglas D. Evanoff & Lewis M. Segal, 1996. "CRA and fair lending regulations: resulting trends in mortgage lending," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Nov, pages 19-46.
- Drew Dahl & Douglas D. Evanoff & Michael F. Spivey, 2009. "Community Reinvestment Act Enforcement and Targeted Mortgage Lending," Working Papers 200806, Utah State University, Department of Economics and Finance.
- Lang William W. & Nakamura Leonard I., 1993. "A Model of Redlining," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 223-234, March.
- Joseph Nichols & Anthony Pennington-Cross & Anthony Yezer, 2004. "Borrower Self-Selection, Underwriting Costs, and Subprime Mortgage Credit Supply," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 197-219, November.
- James T. Campen & Thomas M. Callahan, 2001. "Boston's soft second program: reaching low-income and minority home buyers in a changing financial-services environment," Proceedings 796, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Robert B. Avery & Kenneth P. Brevoort & Glenn B. Canner, 2007. "Opportunities and Issues in Using HMDA Data," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 29(4), pages 351-380.
- Mark J. Garmaise & Tobias J. Moskowitz, 2006. "Bank Mergers and Crime: The Real and Social Effects of Credit Market Competition," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(2), pages 495-538, 04.
- Drew Dahl & Douglas D. Evanoff & Michael F. Spivey, 2002. "Community Reinvestment Act Enforcement and Changes in Targeted Lending," International Regional Science Review, SAGE Publishing, vol. 25(3), pages 307-322, July.
- LaCour-Little, Michael & Malpezzi, Stephen, 2003. "Appraisal Quality and Residential Mortgage Default: Evidence from Alaska," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 211-33, September.
- Kenneth A. Carow & Edward J. Kane, 2001.
"Event-Study Evidence of the Value of Relaxing Longstanding Regulatory Restraints on Banks, 1970-2000,"
NBER Working Papers
8594, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Carow, Kenneth A. & Kane, Edward J., 2002. "Event-study evidence of the value of relaxing long-standing regulatory restraints on banks, 1970-2000," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 439-463.
- repec:fip:fedgsq:y:2007:i:mar30 is not listed on IDEAS
- Harrison, David M., 2001. "The Importance of Lender Heterogeneity in Mortgage Lending," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 285-309, March.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:2008-61. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marlene Vikor)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.