Mortgage companies and regulatory arbitrage
Mortgage companies (MCs) originated about 60% of all mortgages before the 2007 crisis and continue to hold a 30% market share postcrisis. While financial regulations are strictly enforced for depository institutions (banks), they are weakly enforced for MCs even if they are subsidiaries of a bank holding company (BHC). This study documents that the resulting regulatory arbitrage creates incentives for BHCs to engage in risk shifting through their MC affiliates. We show that MCs are established to circumvent the capital requirements and to shield the parent BHCs from loan-related losses. BHCs run the risky mortgage business through their MC affiliates. As compared to bank affiliates of BHCs, the MC affiliates lent more to individuals with lower credit scores, lower incomes, and higher loan-to-income ratios. MC borrowers experienced higher rates of foreclosure and delinquency during the crisis. Our results imply that the regulation in place had the capacity to prevent the deterioration of lending standards widely blamed for the crisis. The inconsistent enforcement of regulation, though, eroded its effectiveness. Higher involvement of mortgage companies in subprime lending and securitization activity do not explain our results.
|Date of creation:||2012|
|Date of revision:||01 Apr 2014|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.clevelandfed.org/
More information through EDIRC
|Order Information:|| Email: |
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Douglas W. Diamond & Philip H. Dybvig, 2000.
"Bank runs, deposit insurance, and liquidity,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, issue Win, pages 14-23.
- Keys, Benjamin J. & Mukherjee, Tanmoy & Seru, Amit & Vig, Vikrant, 2009. "Financial regulation and securitization: Evidence from subprime loans," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(5), pages 700-720, July.
- Allen N. Berger & Sally M. Davies & Mark J. Flannery, 2000.
"Comparing market and supervisory assessments of bank performance: who knows what when?,"
Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, pages 641-670.
- Berger, Allen N & Davies, Sally M & Flannery, Mark J, 2000. "Comparing Market and Supervisory Assessments of Bank Performance: Who Knows What When?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(3), pages 641-67, August.
- Allen N. Berger & Sally M. Davies & Mark J. Flannery, 1998. "Comparing market and supervisory assessments of bank performance: who knows what when?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-32, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Atif Mian & Amir Sufi, 2009. "The Consequences of Mortgage Credit Expansion: Evidence from the U.S. Mortgage Default Crisis," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 124(4), pages 1449-1496, November.
- Gorton, Gary B. & Pennacchi, George G., 1995.
"Banks and loan sales Marketing nonmarketable assets,"
Journal of Monetary Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 389-411, June.
- Gary Gorton & George Pennacchi, 1990. "Banks and Loan Sales: Marketing Non-Marketable Assets," NBER Working Papers 3551, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Acharya, Viral V. & Schnabl, Philipp & Suarez, Gustavo, 2013.
"Securitization without risk transfer,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 107(3), pages 515-536.
- Viral V. Acharya & Philipp Schnabl & Gustavo Suarez, 2010. "Securitization without risk transfer," NBER Working Papers 15730, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Acharya, Viral V & Schnabl, Philipp & Suarez, Gustavo, 2012. "Securitization Without Risk Transfer," CEPR Discussion Papers 8769, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Leland, Hayne E & Pyle, David H, 1977.
"Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 371-87, May.
- Hayne E. Leland and David H. Pyle., 1976. "Informational Asymmetries, Financial Structure, and Financial Intermediation," Research Program in Finance Working Papers 41, University of California at Berkeley.
- Gorton, Gary B., 2010. "Slapped by the Invisible Hand: The Panic of 2007," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199734153, March.
- Richard J. Rosen, 2002.
"Is three a crowd? competition among regulators in banking,"
906, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Rosen, Richard J, 2003. " Is Three a Crowd? Competition among Regulators in Banking," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(6), pages 967-98, December.
- Amiyatosh Purnanandam, 2011. "Originate-to-distribute Model and the Subprime Mortgage Crisis," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(6), pages 1881-1915.
- Bengt Holmstrom & Jean Tirole, 1996.
"Private and Public Supply of Liquidity,"
NBER Working Papers
5817, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sumit Agarwal & David Lucca & Amit Seru & Francesco Trebbi, 2012. "Inconsistent Regulators: Evidence From Banking," NBER Working Papers 17736, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Yuliya Demyanyk & Otto Van Hemert, 2011.
"Understanding the Subprime Mortgage Crisis,"
Review of Financial Studies,
Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(6), pages 1848-1880.
- Gary Gorton & Andrew Metrick, 2010. "Regulating the Shadow Banking System," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 41(2 (Fall)), pages 261-312.
- Anil Kashyap & Raghuram Rajan & Jeremy S. Stein, 1998.
"Banks as liquidity providers: an explanation for the co-existence of lending and deposit-taking,"
582, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
- Anil K. Kashyap & Raghuram Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 2002. "Banks as Liquidity Providers: An Explanation for the Coexistence of Lending and Deposit-Taking," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(1), pages 33-73, 02.
- Anil K. Kashyap & Raghuram Rajan & Jeremy C. Stein, 1999. "Banks as Liquidity Providers: An Explanation for the Co-Existence of Lending and Deposit-Taking," NBER Working Papers 6962, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mathias Dewatripont & Jean Tirole, 1994. "The prudential regulation of banks," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9539, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
- Demyanyk, Yuliya, 2010. "Your credit score is a ranking, not a score," Economic Commentary, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Nov.
- Diamond, Douglas W, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414, July.
- Markus K. Brunnermeier, 2009. "Deciphering the Liquidity and Credit Crunch 2007-2008," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 77-100, Winter.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fip:fedcwp:1220. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lee Faulhaber)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.