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Mortgage companies and regulatory arbitrage

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  • Demyanyk, Yuliya
  • Loutskina, Elena

Abstract

Mortgage companies (MCs) do not fall under the strict regulatory regime of depository institutions. We empirically show that this gap resulted in regulatory arbitrage and allowed bank holding companies (BHCs) to circumvent consumer compliance regulations, mitigate capital requirements, and reduce exposure to loan-related losses. Compared to bank subsidiaries, MC subsidiaries of BHCs originated riskier mortgages to borrowers with lower credit scores, lower incomes, higher loan-to-income ratios, and higher default rates. Our results imply that precrisis regulations had the capacity to mitigate the deterioration of lending standards if consistently applied and enforced for all types of intermediaries.

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  • Demyanyk, Yuliya & Loutskina, Elena, 2016. "Mortgage companies and regulatory arbitrage," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 328-351.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:122:y:2016:i:2:p:328-351
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2016.07.003
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    4. Dávila, Eduardo & Walther, Ansgar, 2022. "Corrective regulation with imperfect instruments," Working Paper Series 2723, European Central Bank.
    5. Yang, Liu & van Wijnbergen, S. & Qi, Xiaotong & Yi, Yuhuan, 2019. "Chinese shadow banking, financial regulation and effectiveness of monetary policy," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 57(C).
    6. Martynova, Natalya & Vogel, Ursula, 2022. "Banks’ complexity-risk nexus and the role of regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 134(C).
    7. Andreas Fuster & Matthew Plosser & James Vickery, 2018. "Does CFPB Oversight Crimp Credit?," Staff Reports 857, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    8. Claudia M. Buch & Linda S. Goldberg, 2021. "Complexity and Riskiness of Banking Organizations: Evidence from the International Banking Research Network," Staff Reports 966, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
    9. Lingxiao Li & Bing Zhu, 2020. "Housing Wealth, Consumption Channels and Mortgage Liberalization," International Real Estate Review, Global Social Science Institute, vol. 23(4), pages 433-465.
    10. Huiyi Zhang & Richard Skolnik & Yue Han & Jinpei Wu, 2020. "The Impacts of China's Shadow Banking Credit Creation on the Effectiveness of Monetary Policy," International Journal of Finance & Banking Studies, Center for the Strategic Studies in Business and Finance, vol. 9(4), pages 33-46, October.
    11. Kang, Jung Koo & Loumioti, Maria & Wittenberg-Moerman, Regina, 2021. "The harmonization of lending standards within banks through mandated loan-level transparency," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1).
    12. van der Plaat, Mark, 2020. "Loan sales and the tyranny of tistance in U.S. residential mortgage lending," MPRA Paper 107519, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 20 Apr 2021.
    13. Clark, Brian & Ebrahim, Alireza, 2022. "Risk shifting and regulatory arbitrage: Evidence from operational risk," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 58(C).
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    16. Glancy, David, 2021. "Housing bust, bank lending & employment: Evidence from multimarket banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Regulation; Banks; Mortgage companies; Mortgages; Financial crisis;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G23 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Non-bank Financial Institutions; Financial Instruments; Institutional Investors
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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