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Nominal and real wage rigidities. In theory and in Europe

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  • Knell, Markus

Abstract

In this paper I study the relation between real wage rigidity (RWR) and nominal price and wage rigidity. I show that in a standard DSGE model RWR is mainly affected by the interaction of the two nominal rigidities and not by other structural parameters. The degree of RWR is, however, considerably influenced by the modelling assumption about the structure of wage contracts (Calvo vs. Taylor) and about other institutional characteristics of wage-setting (clustering of contracts, heterogeneous contract length, indexation). I use survey evidence on price- and wage-setting for 15 European countries to calculate the degrees of RWR implied by the theoretical model. The average levels of RWR are broadly in line with empirical estimates based on macroeconomic data. In order to be able to also match the observed cross-country variation in RWR it is, however, essential to move beyond the country-specific durations of price and wages and to take more institutional details into account. JEL Classification: E31, E32, E24, J51

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  • Knell, Markus, 2010. "Nominal and real wage rigidities. In theory and in Europe," Working Paper Series 1180, European Central Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20101180
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    Cited by:

    1. Juillard, M. & Le Bihan, H. & Millard, S., 2013. "Non-uniform wage-staggering: European evidence and monetary policy implications," Working papers 442, Banque de France.
    2. Nicola Acocella & Laura Bisio & Giovanni Di Bartolomeo & Alessandra Pelloni, "undated". "Labor market imperfections, real wage rigidities and financial shocks," Working Papers 80/11, Sapienza University of Rome, Metodi e Modelli per l'Economia, il Territorio e la Finanza MEMOTEF.
    3. Smith, A. Lee, 2016. "When does the cost channel pose a challenge to inflation targeting central banks?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 471-494.
    4. Ascari, Guido & Rossi, Lorenza, 2011. "Real wage rigidities and disinflation dynamics: Calvo vs. Rotemberg pricing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 110(2), pages 126-131, February.
    5. David Amirault & Paul Fenton & Thérèse Laflèche, 2013. "Asking About Wages: Results from the Bank of Canada’s Wage Setting Survey of Canadian Companies," Discussion Papers 13-1, Bank of Canada.
    6. Druant, Martine & Fabiani, Silvia & Kezdi, Gabor & Lamo, Ana & Martins, Fernando & Sabbatini, Roberto, 2012. "Firms' price and wage adjustment in Europe: Survey evidence on nominal stickiness," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 772-782.
    7. G. de Walque & M. Druant & Ph. Du Caju & C. Fuss, 2010. "Lessons of the Wage Dynamics Network," Economic Review, National Bank of Belgium, issue i, pages 55-75, June.
    8. Barbara Annicchiarico & Claudio Cesaroni, 2018. "Tax reforms and the underground economy: a simulation-based analysis," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 25(2), pages 458-518, April.
    9. Rusinova, Desislava & Lipatov, Vilen & Heinz, Frigyes Ferdinand, 2015. "How flexible are real wages in EU countries? A panel investigation," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 140-154.
    10. Taylor, J.B., 2016. "The Staying Power of Staggered Wage and Price Setting Models in Macroeconomics," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 2009-2042, Elsevier.
    11. Jose Ignacio García Pérez & Victoria Osuna, 2011. "The effects of introducing a single open-ended contract in the Spanish labour market," Working Papers 11.07, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Economics.
    12. Pau Rabanal & Marzie Sanjani, 2015. "Incorporating Financial Cycles in Output Gap Measures: Estimates for the Euro Area," 2015 Meeting Papers 426, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    13. Lukas Vogel & Werner Roeger & Bernhard Herz, 2013. "The Performance of Simple Fiscal Policy Rules in Monetary Union," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 165-196, February.
    14. Robert Anderton & Arno Hantzsche & Simon Savsek & Máté Tóth, 2017. "Sectoral Wage Rigidities and Labour and Product Market Institutions in the Euro Area," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 28(5), pages 923-965, November.
    15. Knell, Markus, 2013. "Nominal and real wage rigidities. In theory and in Europe," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 89-105.
    16. Stefan Hohberger & Lukas Vogel & Bernhard Herz, 2014. "Budgetary-Neutral Fiscal Policy Rules and External Adjustment," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 25(5), pages 909-936, November.
    17. Mr. Pau Rabanal & Marzie Taheri Sanjani, 2015. "Financial Factors: Implications for Output Gaps," IMF Working Papers 2015/153, International Monetary Fund.
    18. Vogel, Lukas, 2012. "Structural reforms, fiscal consolidation and external rebalancing in monetary union: A model-based analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 1286-1298.
    19. Engin Kara & Yongmin Park, 2017. "Heterogeneity in Staggered Wage Bargaining and Unemployment Volatility Puzzle," CESifo Working Paper Series 6536, CESifo.
    20. Markus Knell & Alfred Stiglbauer, 2012. "Reference Norms, Staggered Wages, And Wage Leadership: Theoretical Implications And Empirical Evidence," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 53(2), pages 569-592, May.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    DSGE models; inflation persistence; nominal wage rigidity; real wage rigidity; staggered contracts;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E31 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Price Level; Inflation; Deflation
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J51 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor-Management Relations, Trade Unions, and Collective Bargaining - - - Trade Unions: Objectives, Structure, and Effects

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