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The Impact of Reference Norms on Inflation Persistence When Wages are Staggered

In this paper we present an extension of the Taylor model with staggered wages in which wage-setting is also influenced by reference norms (i.e. by benchmark wages). We show that reference norms can considerably increase the persistence of inflation and the extent of real wage rigidity but that these effects depend on the definition of reference norms (e.g. how backward-looking they are) and on whether the importance of norms differs between sectors. Using data on collectively bargained wages in Austria from 1980 to 2006 we show that wage-setting is strongly influenced by reference norms, that the wages of other sectors seem to matter more than own past wages and that there is a clear indication for the existence of wage leadership (i.e. asymmetries in reference norms).

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File URL: http://www.oenb.at/dms/oenb/Publikationen/Volkswirtschaft/Working-Papers/2009/Working-Paper-153/fullversion/wp153_tcm16-98524.pdf
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Paper provided by Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank) in its series Working Papers with number 153.

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Length: 63
Date of creation: 11 Mar 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:onb:oenbwp:153
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  1. William T. Dickens & Lorenz Goette & Erica L. Groshen & Steinar Holden & Julian Messina & Mark E. Schweitzer & Jarkko Turunen & Melanie E. Ward, 2006. "How wages change: micro evidence from the International Wage Flexibility Project," Working Paper 0620, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  2. FAME,Eric Jondeau, University of Lausanne-HEC & Jean Imbs & Eric Jondeau & Florian Pelgrin, 2006. "Aggregating Phillips Curves," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 314, Society for Computational Economics.
  3. K. Huang & Z. Liu, . "Staggered price-setting, staggered wage-setting, and business cycle persistence," Working Papers 2000-28, Utah State University, Department of Economics.
  4. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
  5. Franz Traxler & Bernd Brandl & Vera Glassner, 2008. "Pattern Bargaining: An Investigation into its Agency, Context and Evidence," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 46(1), pages 33-58, 03.
  6. Robert E. Hall, 2005. "Employment Fluctuations with Equilibrium Wage Stickiness," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(1), pages 50-65, March.
  7. Fuhrer, Jeff & Moore, George, 1995. "Inflation Persistence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 110(1), pages 127-59, February.
  8. Dixon, Huw & Kara, Engin, 2005. "Persistence and nominal inertia in a generalized Taylor economy: how longer contracts dominate shorter contracts," Working Paper Series 0489, European Central Bank.
  9. Giovanni Olivei & Silvana Tenreyro, 2007. "The Timing of Monetary Policy Shocks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(3), pages 636-663, June.
  10. Karl Whelan & Jeremy Rudd, 2003. "Can Rational Expectations Sticky-Price Models Explain Inflation Dynamics?," Computing in Economics and Finance 2003 181, Society for Computational Economics.
  11. John C. Driscoll & Steinar Holden, 2003. "Inflation persistence and relative contracting," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2003-29, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  12. Marika Karanassou & Dennis Snower, 2007. "Inflation Persistence and the Philips Curve Revisited," Kiel Working Papers 1349, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
  13. N. Gregory Mankiw & Ricardo Reis, 2001. "Sticky Information Versus Sticky Prices: A Proposal to Replace the New Keynesian Phillips Curve," NBER Working Papers 8290, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Gali, Jordi & Gertler, Mark, 1999. "Inflation dynamics: A structural econometric analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 195-222, October.
  15. Swamy, P A V B, 1970. "Efficient Inference in a Random Coefficient Regression Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 38(2), pages 311-23, March.
  16. J. Lindquist & Roger Vilhelmsson, 2006. "Is the Swedish central government a wage leader?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(14), pages 1617-1625.
  17. Mark Gertler & Antonella Trigari, 2009. "Unemployment Fluctuations with Staggered Nash Wage Bargaining," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 117(1), pages 38-86, 02.
  18. Frank Smets & Rafael Wouters, 2007. "Shocks and Frictions in US Business Cycles: A Bayesian DSGE Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(3), pages 586-606, June.
  19. repec:nbr:nberre:0126 is not listed on IDEAS
  20. Steinar Holden & Fredrik Wulfsberg, 2007. "Are real wages rigid downwards?," Working Paper 2007/01, Norges Bank.
  21. Smith, Jennifer C, 1996. "Wage Interactions: Comparisons or Fall-Back Options?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(435), pages 495-506, March.
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  23. Roberts, John M, 1995. "New Keynesian Economics and the Phillips Curve," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 27(4), pages 975-84, November.
  24. Olivier Jeanne, 1997. "Generating Real Persistent Effects of Monetary Shocks: How Much Nominal Rigidity Do We Really Need?," NBER Working Papers 6258, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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