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The Impact on Earnings When Entering Self-Employment: Evidence for Germany

  • Johannes Martin

Using data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) earnings differentials between self-employed and wage-employed workers in the German labor market are explored. Previous research based on US data reports lower incomes for entrepreneurs. In contrast to that, the findings of this contribution suggest the opposite for German entrepreneurs. They have considerably higher earnings than wage-employed workers. Furthermore, there is a significant and positive effect on earnings when entering self-employment. This holds true when it is also taken into account that workers usually report a smaller firm size and work longer after beginning an entrepreneurial occupation.

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File URL: http://www.diw.de/documents/publikationen/73/diw_01.c.415686.de/diw_sp0537.pdf
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Paper provided by DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) in its series SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research with number 537.

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Length: 36 p.
Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:diw:diwsop:diw_sp537
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  1. Yannis Georgellis & Howard Wall, 2005. "Gender differences in self-employment," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 321-342.
  2. Gary S. Becker, 1962. "Investment in Human Capital: A Theoretical Analysis," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 9.
  3. Philipp Köllinger & Maria Minniti & Christian Schade, 2005. ""I Think I Can, I Think I Can": Overconfidence and Entrepreneurial Behavior," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 501, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  4. Roy Thurik & Isabel Grilo, 2006. "Latent and actual entrepreneurship in Europe and the US: some recent developments," Scales Research Reports N200514, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  5. Williams, Donald R., 2002. "Returns to education and experience in self-employment: Evidence from Germany," IRISS Working Paper Series 2002-04, IRISS at CEPS/INSTEAD.
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  7. Daiji Kawaguchi, 2002. "Compensating Wage Differentials among Self-Employed Workers:Evidence from Job Satisfaction Scores," ISER Discussion Paper 0568, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  8. Caliendo, Marco & Fossen, Frank M. & Kritikos, Alexander S., 2011. "Personality characteristics and the decision to become and stay self-employed," Discussion Papers 2011/9, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
  9. Heiko Bergmann & Rolf Sternberg, 2007. "The Changing Face of Entrepreneurship in Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 205-221, March.
  10. Bruno S. Frey & Matthias Benz, 2003. "Being Independent is a Great Thing: Subjective Evaluations of Self-Employment and Hierarchy," CESifo Working Paper Series 959, CESifo Group Munich.
  11. Joern H. Block & Marcus Wagner, 2010. "Necessity and Opportunity Entrepreneurs in Germany: Characteristics and Earning s Differentials," Schmalenbach Business Review (sbr), LMU Munich School of Management, vol. 62(2), pages 154-174, April.
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  13. Mats Hammarstedt, 2009. "Predicted earnings and the propensity for self-employment: Evidence from Sweden," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 30(4), pages 349-359, July.
  14. Shane T. Jensen & Stephen H. Shore, 2008. "Changes in the Distribution of Income Volatility," Papers 0808.1090, arXiv.org.
  15. Edvard Johansson, 2000. "Self-employment and the predicted earnings differential - evidence from Finland," Finnish Economic Papers, Finnish Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 45-55, Spring.
  16. Lazear, Edward P & Moore, Robert L, 1984. "Incentives, Productivity, and Labor Contracts," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 99(2), pages 275-96, May.
  17. Jensen & Shore, 2008. "Changes in the Distribution of Income Volatility," 2008 Meeting Papers 82, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  18. Barton H. Hamilton, 2000. "Does Entrepreneurship Pay? An Empirical Analysis of the Returns to Self-Employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(3), pages 604-631, June.
  19. Jörn Block & Philipp Sandner & Marcus Wagner & Marc Weiglein, 2009. "Unternehmensgründungen von Ausländern in Deutschland: Einkommenseffekte und Implikationen für die Gründungslehre," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 196, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
  20. Lazear, Edward P, 1981. "Agency, Earnings Profiles, Productivity, and Hours Restrictions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 606-20, September.
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