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Agriculture, Developing Countries, And The WTO Millennium Round


  • Anderson, Kym


The potential welfare gains from further liberalizing agricultural markets are huge, both absolutely and relative to gains from liberalizing textiles or other manufacturing, according to recent GTAP modelling results. Should attempts to liberalize farm trade in the next WTO round follow the same pattern as the Uruguay Round, or might a more radical approach be required to bring agriculture more into the WTO mainstream? The question is explored from the viewpoint of developing countries by focusing especially on the Uruguay Round's dirty tariffication and adoption of tariff rate quotas. The paper also examines new agricultural issues, notably food safety and agriculture's so-called multifunctionality: both were the subject of contention in Seattle in late 1999, and both have important implications for developing countries' trade. Options facing developing countries are explored in the paper's final section. The prospective new millennium round offers the best opportunity yet for developing countries to be pro-active in seeking faster reform of farm (and textile) trade by OECD countries. In return the developing countries will need to offer to open their own economies more. Fortuitously, that too is in the economic interests of rural people in poor countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Anderson, Kym, 2000. "Agriculture, Developing Countries, And The WTO Millennium Round," CEPR Discussion Papers 2437, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:2437

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    4. Hudec, Robert E., 1998. "Does The Agreement On Agriculture Work? Agricultural Disputes After The Uruguay Round," Working Papers 14612, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    5. Anderson, Kym & Strutt, Anna, 1999. "Impact Of East Asia’s Growth Interruption and Policy Responses: The Case Of Indonesia," 1999 Conference (43th), January 20-22, 1999, Christchurch, New Zealand 125027, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    6. Francois, Joseph F & Wooton, Ian, 2001. "Trade in International Transport Services: The Role of Competition," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(2), pages 249-261, May.
    7. Finger, J. Michael & Schuknecht, Ludger, 1999. "Market access advances and retreats : the Uruguay Round and beyond," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2232, The World Bank.
    8. Anderson, Kym & Hoekman, Bernard & Strutt, Anna, 2001. "Agriculture and the WTO: Next Steps," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(2), pages 192-214, May.
    9. Anderson, Kym & Dimaranan, Betina & Hertel, Thomas W & Martin, Will, 1997. "Economic Growth and Policy Reform in the APEC Region: Trade and Welfare Implications by 2005," CEPR Discussion Papers 1605, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. K. Anderson & R. Tyers, 1993. "More On Welfare Gains To Developing Countries From Liberalizing World Food Trade," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(2), pages 189-204.
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    13. Merlinda D. Ingco, 1996. "Tariffication in the Uruguay Round: How Much Liberalisation?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 425-446, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Kathleen Macmillan, 2001. "Doing the Right Thing: The WTO and the Developing World," The State of Economics in Canada: Festschrift in Honour of David Slater,in: Patrick Grady & Andrew Sharpe (ed.), The State of Economics in Canada: Festschrift in Honour of David Slater, pages 267-289 Centre for the Study of Living Standards.
    2. Abbott, Philip C., 2003. "Agricultural Trade Liberalization and Adjustment in Developing Countries," Policy Reform and Adjustment Workshop, October 23-25, 2003, Imperial College London, Wye Campus 15731, International Agricultural Policy Reform and Adjustment Project (IAPRAP).
    3. Matthews, A., 2000. "Multilateral Trade Reform in Agriculture and the Developing Countries," Trinity Economics Papers 200010, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
    4. Meilke, Karl D. & Huff, Karen, 2001. "Trade Liberalization Under Nafta: Where From Here?," Trade Liberalization Under NAFTA: Report Card on Agriculture; Proceedings of the 6th Agricultural and Food Policy Systems Information Workshop -2000 16819, Farm Foundation, Agricultural and Food Policy Systems Information Workshops.
    5. Conforti, Piero & Velazquez, Beatriz E., 2004. "The Effects of Alternative Proposals for Agricultural Export Subsidies in the Current WTO Round," Estey Centre Journal of International Law and Trade Policy, Estey Centre for Law and Economics in International Trade, vol. 5(1).
    6. Herrmann, Roland & Kramb, Marc & Mönnich, Christina, 2000. "Tariff rate quotas and the economic impacts of agricultural trade liberalization in the WTO," Discussion Papers 1, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Center for international Development and Environmental Research (ZEU).
    7. Conforti, Piero & Velazquez, Beatriz E., 2003. "The Effects Of Alternative Proposals On Export Subsidies To Agricultural Products In The Current Wto Round," Working Papers 14801, National Institute of Agricultural Economics, Italy INEA, Osservatorio Sulle Politiche Agricole dell'UE.
    8. Anderson, Kym, 2003. "Trade Liberalization, Agriculture, and Poverty in Low-income Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series 025, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    9. Boussard, J.M. & Gerard, F. & Piketty, M.G. & Christensen, A.K. & Voituriez, T., 2004. "May the pro-poor impacts of trade liberalisation vanish because of imperfect information?," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 31(2-3), pages 297-305, December.
    10. Li, Xianghong & Carter, Colin A., 2005. "Agricultural Tariff Rate Quotas: Impacts on Market Access," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19413, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).

    More about this item


    Agricultural Policy Reform; Multilateral Trade Negotiations; New Trade Issues; WTO;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • K33 - Law and Economics - - Other Substantive Areas of Law - - - International Law
    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy


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