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Fossil Fuel Supply, Leakage and the Effectiveness of Border Measures in Climate Policy

  • Stefan Boeters

    ()

  • Johannes Bollen

    ()

Understanding fossil fuel supply behaviour is crucial for interpreting carbon leakage and assessing the potential effectiveness of border measures in climate policy. In most computable general equilibrium models, this fossil fuel supply is derived from a constant elasticity of substitution production function, in which a natural resource is treated as a fixed factor. We show that this leads to endogenously decreasing supply elasticities and sharply increasing marginal leakage rates for large coalitions that have ambitious emissions targets, particularly when fuel exporters participate in the coalition. We propose an alternative production function that has a constant elasticity of fuel supply, which results in more stable leakage rates and a different share of trade-related leakage. The role of this model variation for the assessment of border measures in climate policy turns out to be limited. In those cases where the model versions differ most (i.e. large coalition, ambitious targets), border measures have a small effect anyway.

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Paper provided by CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis in its series CPB Discussion Paper with number 215.

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Date of creation: Jul 2012
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Handle: RePEc:cpb:discus:215
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  1. Arjan Lejour & Paul Veenendaal & Gerard Verweij & Nico van Leeuwen, 2006. "Worldscan; a model for international economic policy analysis," CPB Document 111, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  2. Graham, Paul & Thorpe, Sally & Hogan, Lindsay, 1999. "Non-competitive market behaviour in the international coking coal market," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(3), pages 195-212, June.
  3. Stefan Boeters & J. Koornneef, 2010. "Supply of renewable energy sources and the cost of EU climate policy," CPB Discussion Paper 142, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
  4. Ringlund, Guro Bornes & Rosendahl, Knut Einar & Skjerpen, Terje, 2008. "Does oilrig activity react to oil price changes An empirical investigation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 371-396, March.
  5. Dahl, Carol & Duggan, Thomas E., 1996. "U.S. energy product supply elasticities: A survey and application to the U.S. oil market," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 243-263, October.
  6. Jean-Marc Burniaux & Joaquim Oliveira Martins, 2000. "Carbon Emission Leakages: A General Equilibrium View," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 242, OECD Publishing.
  7. Dong, Yan & Whalley, John, 2012. "Joint non-OPEC carbon taxes and the transfer of OPEC monopoly rents," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 49-63.
  8. Krichene, Noureddine, 2002. "World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(6), pages 557-576, November.
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