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Unilateral Climate Policy: Can OPEC Resolve the Leakage Problem?

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  • Christoph Bohringer, Knut Einar Rosendahl, and Jan Schneider

Abstract

In the absence of a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, individual countries have introduced national climate policies. Unilateral action involves the risk of relocating emissions to regions without climate regulations, i.e., emission leakage. A major channel for leakage are price changes in the international oil market. Previous studies on leakage have assumed competitive behavior in this market. Here, we consider alternative assumptions about OPEC's behavior in order to assess how these affect leakage and costs of unilateral climate policies. Our results based on simulations with a large-scale computable general equilibrium model of the global economy suggest that assumptions on OPEC's behavior are crucial to the impact assessment of unilateral climate policy measures. We find that leakage through the oil market may become negative when OPEC is perceived as a dominant producer, thereby reducing overall leakage drastically compared to a setting where the oil market is perceived competitive.

Suggested Citation

  • Christoph Bohringer, Knut Einar Rosendahl, and Jan Schneider, 2014. "Unilateral Climate Policy: Can OPEC Resolve the Leakage Problem?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4).
  • Handle: RePEc:aen:journl:ej35-4-04
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    1. repec:eee:inecon:v:109:y:2017:i:c:p:195-213 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Finn Roar Aune & Ann Christin Bøeng & Snorre Kverndokk & Lars Lindholt & Knut Einar Rosendahl, 2017. "Fuel Efficiency Improvements: Feedback Mechanisms and Distributional Effects in the Oil Market," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 68(1), pages 15-45, September.
    3. Aune, Finn Roar & Grimsrud, Kristine & Lindholt, Lars & Rosendahl, Knut Einar & Storrøsten, Halvor Briseid, 2017. "Oil consumption subsidy removal in OPEC and other Non-OECD countries: Oil market impacts and welfare effects," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 395-409.
    4. Frederick van der Ploeg, 2015. "Unilateral Carbon Taxation in the Global Economy: The Green Paradox and carbon leakage revisted," OxCarre Working Papers 157, Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies, University of Oxford.
    5. Christoph Böhringer & Knut Einar Rosendahl & Halvor Briseid Storrøsten, 2015. "Mitigating carbon leakage: Combining output-based rebating with a consumption tax," ZenTra Working Papers in Transnational Studies 54 / 2015, ZenTra - Center for Transnational Studies.
    6. Huppmann, Daniel & Egging, Ruud, 2014. "Market power, fuel substitution and infrastructure – A large-scale equilibrium model of global energy markets," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 483-500.
    7. van der Ploeg, Frederick, 2016. "Second-best carbon taxation in the global economy: The Green Paradox and carbon leakage revisited," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 85-105.
    8. Larch, Mario & Wanner, Joschka, 2017. "Carbon tariffs: An analysis of the trade, welfare, and emission effects," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 195-213.

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    • F0 - International Economics - - General

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