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The exploitation of fossil fuels under the threat of global warming and carbon taxes: A dynamic game approach

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  • Franz Wirl

Abstract

This paper considers efficient and monopolistic extraction of non-renewable (energy) resources when the resource consumption leads simultaneously to a stock externality (‘global warming’). The case of monopolistic supply leads to a dynamic game between cartelised producers and a consumers' government. For this game, we compute linear Markov perfect strategies that are characterized by preemption of the tax at the wellhead (when compared with the open loop solution). Unfortunately, the general, asymmetric two-state variable model does not allow for an explicit analytical solution. Therefore, a simplified version with one state variable (neglecting depreciation of the stock of the pollutant) is studied and a numerical example is presented. It turns out that the simplified and analytically solved framework provides a good approximation of the initial phase of the transient behaviour but not of the long run. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 1995

Suggested Citation

  • Franz Wirl, 1995. "The exploitation of fossil fuels under the threat of global warming and carbon taxes: A dynamic game approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 5(4), pages 333-352, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:enreec:v:5:y:1995:i:4:p:333-352
    DOI: 10.1007/BF00691573
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Nordhaus, William D, 1991. "To Slow or Not to Slow: The Economics of the Greenhouse Effect," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(407), pages 920-937, July.
    2. Reynolds, Stanley S., 1991. "Dynamic oligopoly with capacity adjustment costs," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 491-514, July.
    3. Karp, Larry & Newbery, David M., 1991. "Optimal tariffs on exhaustible resources," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3-4), pages 285-299, May.
    4. Nordhaus, William D, 1993. "Optimal Greenhouse-Gas Reductions and Tax Policy in the "Dice" Model," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(2), pages 313-317, May.
    5. Hoel, Michael, 1993. "Intertemporal properties of an international carbon tax," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 51-70, March.
    6. Pindyck, Robert S, 1978. "The Optimal Exploration and Production of Nonrenewable Resources," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 86(5), pages 841-861, October.
    7. Wirl, Franz, 1993. "Energy pricing when externalities are taxed," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 255-270, September.
    8. Feichtinger, Gustav & Wirl, Franz, 1993. "A Dynamic Variant of the Battle of the Sexes," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer;Game Theory Society, vol. 22(4), pages 359-380.
    9. Dockner Engelbert J. & Van Long Ngo, 1993. "International Pollution Control: Cooperative versus Noncooperative Strategies," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 13-29, July.
    10. Wirl Franz, 1994. "Pigouvian Taxation of Energy for Flow and Stock Externalities and Strategic, Noncompetitive Energy Pricing," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 1-18, January.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rubio, Santiago J. & Escriche, Luisa, 2001. "Strategic pigouvian taxation, stock externalities and polluting non-renewable resources," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 297-313, February.
    2. Mark Kagan & Frederick Ploeg & Cees Withagen, 2015. "Battle for Climate and Scarcity Rents: Beyond the Linear-Quadratic Case," Dynamic Games and Applications, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 493-522, December.
    3. Kenji Fujiwara & Ngo Long, 2011. "Welfare Implications of Leadership in a Resource Market under Bilateral Monopoly," Dynamic Games and Applications, Springer, vol. 1(4), pages 479-497, December.
    4. Zhang, Xiao-Bing & Zhu, Lei, 2017. "Strategic carbon taxation and energy pricing under the threat of climate tipping events," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 352-363.
    5. van der Ploeg, Frederick, 2016. "Second-best carbon taxation in the global economy: The Green Paradox and carbon leakage revisited," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 85-105.
    6. Zhang, Xiao-Bing, 2014. "Strategic Carbon Taxation and Energy Pricing: The Role of Innovation," Working Papers in Economics 589, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    7. Seiichi KATAYAMA & Ngo Van LONG & Hiroshi OHTA, 2013. "Carbon Taxes in a Trading World," GSICS Working Paper Series 26, Graduate School of International Cooperation Studies, Kobe University.
    8. Larry Karp & Sauleh Siddiqui & Jon Strand, 2016. "Dynamic Climate Policy with Both Strategic and Non-strategic Agents: Taxes Versus Quantities," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 65(1), pages 135-158, September.
    9. repec:old:wpaper:355 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Nachtigall, Daniel, 2017. "Prices versus quantities: The impact of fracking on the choice of climate policy instruments in the presence of OPEC," Discussion Papers 2017/6, Free University Berlin, School of Business & Economics.
    11. repec:zbw:hohpro:355 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. L. Lambertini, 2014. "On the Interplay between Resource Extraction and Polluting Emissions in Oligopoly," Working Papers wp976, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    13. Santiago J. Rubio, 2002. "On The Coincidence Of The Feedback Nash And Stackelberg Equilibria In Economic Applications Of Differential Games," Working Papers. Serie AD 2002-11, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
    14. Christoph Bohringer, Knut Einar Rosendahl, and Jan Schneider, 2014. "Unilateral Climate Policy: Can OPEC Resolve the Leakage Problem?," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4).
    15. Rémy Dullieux & Lionel Ragot & Katheline Schubert, 2011. "Carbon Tax and OPEC’s Rents Under a Ceiling Constraint," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 113(4), pages 798-824, December.
    16. Jon Strand, 2008. "Importer and Producer Petroleum Taxation; A Geo-Political Model," IMF Working Papers 08/35, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Wirl, Franz, 2006. "Consequences of irreversibilities on optimal intertemporal CO2 emission policies under uncertainty," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 105-123, May.
    18. Sandal, Leif Kristoffer & Steinshamn, Stein Ivar, 2004. "Pollution Decay, Consumer Awareness and Optimal Carbon Taxes," Discussion Papers 2004/7, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Business and Management Science.
    19. Berg, Elin & Kverndokk, Snorre & Rosendahl, Knut Einar, 2002. "Oil Exploration under Climate Treaties," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 493-516, November.
    20. Ngo Long, 2011. "Dynamic Games in the Economics of Natural Resources: A Survey," Dynamic Games and Applications, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 115-148, March.
    21. Strand, Jon, 2010. "Optimal fossil-fuel taxation with backstop technologies and tenure risk," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 418-422, March.
    22. Daniel Nachtigall, 2017. "Prices versus Quantities: The Impact of Fracking on the Choice of Climate Policy Instruments in the Presence of OPEC," Working Papers 2017001, Berlin Doctoral Program in Economics and Management Science (BDPEMS).
    23. Liski, Matti & Tahvonen, Olli, 2004. "Can carbon tax eat OPEC's rents?," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 1-12, January.
    24. Wie, Jiegen & Wennlock, Magnus & Johansson, Daniel J.A. & Sterner, Thomas, 2011. "The Fossil Endgame: Strategic Oil Price Discrimination and Carbon Taxation," Discussion Papers dp-11-26, Resources For the Future.

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