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Globalization and State Capitalism: Assessing Vietnam's Accession to the WTO

Author

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  • Leonardo Baccini
  • Giammario Impullitti
  • Edmund J. Malesky

Abstract

What do state-owned enterprises (SOEs) do? How do they respond to market incentives? Can we expect substantial efficiency gains from trade liberalization in economies with a strong presence of SOEs? Using a new dataset of Vietnamese firms we document a set of empirical regularities distinguishing SOEs from private firms. We embed some of these features characterizing SOEs operations in a model of trade with firm heterogeneity and show that they can hinder the selection effects of openness and tame the aggregate productivity gains from trade. We empirically test these predictions analyzing the response of Vietnamese firms to the 2007 WTO accession. Our result show that WTO accession is associated with higher probability of exit, lower markups, and substantial increases in productivity for private firms but not for SOEs. Domestic barriers to entry and preferential access to credit are key drivers of the different response of SOEs to trade liberalization. Our estimates suggest that the overall productivity gains would have been about 66% larger in a counterfactual Vietnamese economy without SOEs.

Suggested Citation

  • Leonardo Baccini & Giammario Impullitti & Edmund J. Malesky, 2017. "Globalization and State Capitalism: Assessing Vietnam's Accession to the WTO," CESifo Working Paper Series 6618, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_6618
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    2. Dang, Quyen Thao & Jasovska, Pavlina & Rammal, Hussain Gulzar, 2020. "International business-government relations: The risk management strategies of MNEs in emerging economies," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(1).
    3. Fang, Heyang & Zhang, Yifei, 2019. "Political Tensions and Corporate Cross-border Financing: Evidence from the China-U.S. Trade War," MPRA Paper 95494, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Le, Manh-Duc & Pieri, Fabio & Zaninotto, Enrico, 2019. "From central planning towards a market economy: The role of ownership and competition in Vietnamese firms’ productivity," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 693-716.
    5. Alexandra Sotiriou & Andres Rodriguez-Pose, 2021. "Chinese vs. US trade in an emerging country. The impact of trade openness in Chile," Papers in Evolutionary Economic Geography (PEEG) 2121, Utrecht University, Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Group Economic Geography, revised Jun 2021.
    6. Huang, Yi & Sheng, Liugang & Wang, Gewei, 2021. "How did rising labor costs erode China’s global advantage?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 183(C), pages 632-653.
    7. Jaax, Alexander, 2020. "Private sector development and provincial patterns of poverty: Evidence from Vietnam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    state capitalism; state-owned enterprises; trade liberalization; heterogeneous firms; gains from trade; WTO; Vietnam;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F12 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Models of Trade with Imperfect Competition and Scale Economies; Fragmentation
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • P31 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Socialist Enterprises and Their Transitions
    • P33 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - International Trade, Finance, Investment, Relations, and Aid

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