IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/baf/cbafwp/cbafwp1620.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bank Secrecy in Offshore Centres and Capital Flows: Does Blacklisting Matter?

Author

Listed:
  • Olga Balakina
  • Angelo D’Andrea
  • Donato Masciandaro

Abstract

This study analyses cross-border capital flows in order to verify the existence and direction of the effect of the soft regulation promoted by international organizations against banking secrecy which characterized the so called tax and financial heavens. This effect is called in the literature Stigma Effect but both the existence and the direction of the stigma effect are far from being obvious. The international capital flows can simply neglect the relevance of the blacklisting, or worst, the attractiveness of banking secrecy can produce a race to the bottom: the desire to elude more transparent regulation can sensibly influence the capital movements. We test whether being included and later excluded from the FATF blacklist is an effective measure that influences countries’ cross-border capital flows. Using annual panel data for the period 1996-2014, we apply our framework to 126 countries worldwide. We find evidence that in general the stigma effect does not exist.

Suggested Citation

  • Olga Balakina & Angelo D’Andrea & Donato Masciandaro, 2016. "Bank Secrecy in Offshore Centres and Capital Flows: Does Blacklisting Matter?," BAFFI CAREFIN Working Papers 1620, BAFFI CAREFIN, Centre for Applied Research on International Markets Banking Finance and Regulation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
  • Handle: RePEc:baf:cbafwp:cbafwp1620
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://repec.unibocconi.it/baffic/baf/papers/cbafwp1620.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Barth,James R. & Caprio,Gerard & Levine,Ross, 2008. "Rethinking Bank Regulation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521709309, November.
    2. Gian-Maria Milesi-Ferretti & Cédric Tille, 2011. "The great retrenchment: international capital flows during the global financial crisis [‘The great trade collapse: what caused it and what does it mean?’]," Economic Policy, CEPR, CESifo, Sciences Po;CES;MSH, vol. 26(66), pages 289-346.
    3. Chiţu, Livia & Eichengreen, Barry & Mehl, Arnaud, 2014. "History, gravity and international finance," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 104-129.
    4. Schwarz, Peter, 2011. "Money launderers and tax havens: Two sides of the same coin?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 37-47, March.
    5. Hampton, Mark P. & Christensen, John, 2002. "Offshore Pariahs? Small Island Economies, Tax Havens, and the Re-configuration of Global Finance," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1657-1673, September.
    6. Ostry, Jonathan D. & Ghosh, Atish R. & Chamon, Marcos & Qureshi, Mahvash S., 2012. "Tools for managing financial-stability risks from capital inflows," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 407-421.
    7. Brigitte Unger & Gregory Rawlings, 2008. "Competing for criminal money," Global Business and Economics Review, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 10(3), pages 331-352.
    8. Picard, Pierre M. & Pieretti, Patrice, 2011. "Bank secrecy, illicit money and offshore financial centers," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(7), pages 942-955.
    9. Donato Masciandaro, 2005. "False and Reluctant Friends? National Money Laundering Regulation, International Compliance and Non-Cooperative Countries," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 20(1), pages 17-30, July.
    10. Masciandaro, Donato & Pansini, Rosaria Vega & Quintyn, Marc, 2013. "The economic crisis: Did supervision architecture and governance matter?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 578-596.
    11. Friedrich Schneider & Andreas Buehn & Claudio E. Montenegro, 2011. "Shadow Economies All Over the World: New Estimates for 162 Countries from 1999 to 2007," Chapters, in: Friedrich Schneider (ed.), Handbook on the Shadow Economy, chapter 1, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. AndrewK. Rose & MarkM. Spiegel, 2007. "Offshore Financial Centres: Parasites or Symbionts?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 117(523), pages 1310-1335, October.
    13. Mahvash S. Qureshi & Jonathan D. Ostry & Atish R. Ghosh & Marcos Chamon, 2011. "Managing Capital Inflows: The Role of Capital Controls and Prudential Policies," NBER Working Papers 17363, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Kaufmann, Daniel & Kraay, Aart & Mastruzzi, Massimo, 2007. "Governance Matters VI: Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators, 1996-2006," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4280, The World Bank.
    15. Donato Masciandaro, 2008. "Offshore financial centres: the political economy of regulation," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 307-340, December.
    16. Doug Bond & Joe Bond & Churl Oh & J. Craig Jenkins & Charles Lewis Taylor, 2003. "Integrated Data for Events Analysis (IDEA): An Event Typology for Automated Events Data Development," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 40(6), pages 733-745, November.
    17. Papaioannou, Elias, 2009. "What drives international financial flows? Politics, institutions and other determinants," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 269-281, March.
    18. Friedrich Schneider & Andreas Buehn & Claudio Montenegro, 2010. "New Estimates for the Shadow Economies all over the World," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 443-461.
    19. Reinhardt, Dennis & Ricci, Luca Antonio & Tressel, Thierry, 2013. "International capital flows and development: Financial openness matters," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 235-251.
    20. Gnutzmann, Hinnerk & McCarthy, Killian J. & Unger, Brigitte, 2010. "Dancing with the devil: Country size and the incentive to tolerate money laundering," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 244-252, September.
    21. Gian‐Maria Milesi‐Ferretti & Cédric Tille, 2011. "The great retrenchment: international capital flows during the global financial crisis," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 26(66), pages 285-342, April.
    22. Joel F. Houston & Chen Lin & Yue Ma, 2012. "Regulatory Arbitrage and International Bank Flows," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 67(5), pages 1845-1895, October.
    23. King, Gary & Lowe, Will, 2003. "An Automated Information Extraction Tool for International Conflict Data with Performance as Good as Human Coders: A Rare Events Evaluation Design," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 57(3), pages 617-642, July.
    24. Joshua S. Goldstein, 1992. "A Conflict-Cooperation Scale for WEIS Events Data," Journal of Conflict Resolution, Peace Science Society (International), vol. 36(2), pages 369-385, June.
    25. Mr. Udaibir S Das & Mr. Marc G Quintyn & Miss Kina Chenard, 2004. "Does Regulatory Governance Matter for Financial System Stability? An Empirical Analysis," IMF Working Papers 2004/089, International Monetary Fund.
    26. H. Gnutzmann & K. Mccarthy & B. Unger, 2008. "Dancing with the Devil: A Study of Country Size and the Incentive to Tolerate Money Laundering," Working Papers 08-18, Utrecht School of Economics.
    27. Ms. Concha Verdugo Yepes, 2011. "Compliance with the AM+L4776L/CFT International Standard: Lessons from a Cross-Country Analysis," IMF Working Papers 2011/177, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Vincent Bouvatier & Gunther Capelle-Blancard & Anne-Laure Delatte, 2017. "Banks Defy Gravity in Tax Havens," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-03101505, HAL.
    2. Raffaella Barone & Donato Masciandaro & Friedrich Schneider, 2022. "Corruption and money laundering: You scratch my back, i’ll scratch yours," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 73(1), pages 318-342, February.
    3. Wildmer Daniel Gregori & Michela Nardo, 2021. "The effect of restrictive measures on cross‐border investment in the European Union," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(7), pages 1914-1943, July.
    4. Mark Nance, 2022. "Julia C. Morse. 2022. The Bankers’ Blacklist: Unofficial Market Enforcement and the Global Fight Against Illicit Financing. (Ithaca: Cornell University Press). Michele Riccardi. 2022. Money Laundering," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 17(4), pages 899-910, October.
    5. Kerim Can Kavakli & Giovanna Marcolongo & Diego Zambiasi, 2023. "Sanction Evasion Through Tax Havens," BAFFI CAREFIN Working Papers 23212, BAFFI CAREFIN, Centre for Applied Research on International Markets Banking Finance and Regulation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.
    6. Fatica, Serena & Gregori, Wildmer Daniel, 2020. "How much profit shifting do European banks do?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 536-551.
    7. MARSCHINSKI Robert & DE AMORES HERNANDEZ Antonio & AMOROSO Sara & BAUER Peter & CARDANI Roberta & CSEFALVAY Zoltan & GENTY Aurelien & GKOTSIS Petros & GREGORI Wildmer & GRASSANO Nicola & HERNANDEZ GUE, 2021. "EU competitiveness: recent trends, drivers, and links to economic policy: A Synthesis Report," JRC Research Reports JRC123232, Joint Research Centre.
    8. Fatica, Serena & Wildmer, Gregori, 2018. "Profit shifting by EU banks: evidence from country-by-country reporting," Working Papers 2018-04, Joint Research Centre, European Commission.
    9. Louis de Koker & John Howell & Nicholas Morris, 2023. "Economic Consequences of Greylisting by the Financial Action Task Force," Risks, MDPI, vol. 11(5), pages 1-32, April.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. repec:idb:brikps:81941 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Cavallaro, Eleonora & Cutrini, Eleonora, 2019. "Distance and beyond: What drives financial flows to emerging economies?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 533-550.
    3. Valentina Gullo & Pierluigi Montalbano, 2018. "Where does “dirty” money go? A gravity analysis," Working Papers 5/18, Sapienza University of Rome, DISS.
    4. Emma Galli & Ilde Rizzo & Carla Scaglioni, 2020. "Is transparency spatially determined? An empirical test for Italian municipalities," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(58), pages 6372-6385, December.
    5. Gullo, Valentina & Montalbano, Pierluigi, 2022. "Financial transparency and anomalous portfolio investment flows: A gravity analysis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 128(C).
    6. Ghosh, Atish R. & Ostry, Jonathan D. & Qureshi, Mahvash S., 2018. "Taming the Tide of Capital Flows: A Policy Guide," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262037165, December.
    7. Vincent Bouvatier & Gunther Capelle-Blancard & Anne-Laure Delatte, 2017. "Banks Defy Gravity in Tax Havens," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-03101505, HAL.
    8. Ahmed, Shaghil & Zlate, Andrei, 2014. "Capital flows to emerging market economies: A brave new world?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(PB), pages 221-248.
    9. Ha, Dao & Gillet, Philippe & Le, Phuong & Vo, Dinh-Tri, 2020. "Banking integration in ASEAN-6: An empirical investigation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 705-719.
    10. Carmela D’Avino, 2023. "Money laundering and AML regulatory and judicial system regimes: investigation of FinCEN files," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 55(2), pages 195-223, April.
    11. Niepmann, Friederike, 2015. "Banking across borders," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 244-265.
    12. Lorenz Emter & Martin Schmitz & Marcel Tirpák, 2019. "Cross-border banking in the EU since the crisis: What is driving the great retrenchment?," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 155(2), pages 287-326, May.
    13. Caporale, Guglielmo Maria & Menla Ali, Faek & Spagnolo, Fabio & Spagnolo, Nicola, 2022. "Cross-border portfolio flows and news media coverage," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 126(C).
    14. Boonman, Tjeerd, 2023. "Have drivers of portfolio capital flows changed since the Global Financial Crisis?," MPRA Paper 116507, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Bremus, Franziska & Fratzscher, Marcel, 2015. "Drivers of structural change in cross-border banking since the global financial crisis," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 32-59.
    16. Schwarz, Peter, 2011. "Money launderers and tax havens: Two sides of the same coin?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 37-47, March.
    17. Donny TANG, 2020. "What determines the portfolio investment flows to Central and Eastern European Countries in the European Union 2001-2017?," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania / Editura Economica, vol. 0(4(625), W), pages 21-42, Winter.
    18. Antoine GODIN & Sakir-Devrim YILMAZ, 2020. "Modelling Small Open Developing Economies in a Financialized World: A Stock-Flow Consistent Prototype Growth Model," Working Paper 5eb7e0e8-560f-4ce6-91a5-5, Agence française de développement.
    19. Stijn Claessens & M. Ayhan Kose, 2013. "Financial Crises: Explanations, Types and Implications," CAMA Working Papers 2013-06, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    20. Frame, W. Scott & Mihov, Atanas & Sanz, Leandro, 2020. "Foreign Investment, Regulatory Arbitrage, and the Risk of U.S. Banking Organizations," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 55(3), pages 955-988, May.
    21. Ibrahim D. Raheem & Sara le Roux & Simplice A. Asongu, 2019. "The Role of Asymmetry and Uncertainties in the Capital Flows- Economic Growth Nexus," Research Africa Network Working Papers 19/047, Research Africa Network (RAN).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    bank secrecy; offshore centres; international capital flows; name and shame regulation; money laundering;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:baf:cbafwp:cbafwp1620. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Michela Pozzi (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cbbocit.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.