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Cross-country Variation in Factor Shares and its Implications for Development Accounting

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  • Brad Sturgill

Abstract

The stability of factor shares has long been considered one of the “stylized facts” of macroeconomics. However, the relationship between cross-country factor shares and economic development is dependent on how factor shares are measured. Most factor share studies acknowledge only two factors of production: total capital and total labor. The failure to acknowledge more than two factors yields misleading results. Recent theoretical work predicts a systematic relationship between the stage of economic development and non-reproducible and reproducible factor shares. I disentangle physical capital’s share from natural capital’s share, and I disentangle human capital’s share from unskilled labor’s share. The results reveal that nonreproducible factor shares decrease with the stage of economic development, and reproducible factor shares increase with the stage of economic development. Studies relying on the macroeconomic paradigm of constant factor shares should be revisited. Development accounting nearly always assumes the constancy of factor shares. I perform the development accounting exercise but allow factor shares to vary and distinguish between reproducible and nonreproducible factors. My approach yields results that stand in stark contrast to those previously attained. The general consensus is that at least half of the cross-country variation in output per worker is attributable to cross-country variation in the TFP residual. With my approach, the majority of variation in output per worker accrues to factor shares, specifically physical capital’s share and natural capital’s share. TFP’s explanatory power decreases by more than 30 percentage points. This evidence does not, however, diminish the role of technical change. Rather, the evidence indicates the importance of acknowledging a new type of technical change, one that impacts factor shares. Key Words: Factor Shares, TFP residual

Suggested Citation

  • Brad Sturgill, 2009. "Cross-country Variation in Factor Shares and its Implications for Development Accounting," Working Papers 09-07, Department of Economics, Appalachian State University.
  • Handle: RePEc:apl:wpaper:09-07
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Hernando Zuleta, 2015. "Factor shares, inequality, and capital flows," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 82(2), pages 647-667, October.
    2. Voyvoda, Ebru & Yeldan, Erinç, 2015. "Public policy and growth in Canada: An applied endogenous growth model with human and knowledge capital accumulation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 298-309.
    3. Carolina Arteaga Cabrales, 2011. "Human Capital Externalities and Growth," Revista ESPE - Ensayos sobre Política Económica, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, vol. 29(66), pages 12-47, December.
    4. Hernando Zuleta, 2011. "Factor Shares, Income Distribution and Capital Flows," DEGIT Conference Papers c016_003, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
    5. Marcello Spanò, 2012. "The Effect Of Openness On Foreign Reserves And Growth In The Emerging Economies," Annals - Economy Series, Constantin Brancusi University, Faculty of Economics, vol. 1, pages 7-23, March.
    6. Bassetti, Thomas & Favaro, Donata, 2009. "A growth model with time allocation and social participation," MPRA Paper 15969, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Thomas Bassetti & Donata Favaro, 2011. "A Growth Model with Gender Inequality in Employment, Human Capital, and Socio-Political Participation," CHILD Working Papers wp14_11, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
    8. Brian Piper, 2014. "Factor-Specific Productivity," Working Papers 1401, Sam Houston State University, Department of Economics and International Business.
    9. Zuleta, Hernando, 2012. "Variable factor shares, measurement and growth accounting," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 91-93.
    10. Zuleta, Hernando, 2009. "If factor shares are not constant then we have a measurment problem. can we solve it?," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 005744, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E23 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Production
    • O30 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - General
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence

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