IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

More Reasons Why Farmers Have So Little Interest in Futures Markets

  • Pannell, David J.
  • Hailu, Getu
  • Weersink, Alfons
  • Burt, Amanda

The use by farmers of futures contracts and other hedging instruments has been observed to be low in many situations, and this has sometimes seemed to be considered surprising or even mysterious. We propose that it is, in fact, readily understandable and consistent with rational decision making. Standard models of the decision about optimal hedging show that it is negatively related to basis risk, to quantity risk, and to transaction costs. Farmers who have less uncertainty about prices have a lower optimal level of hedging. If a farmer has optimistic price expectations relative to the futures market, the incentive to hedge can be greatly reduced. And finally, farmers who have low levels of risk aversion have little to gain from hedging in terms of risk reduction, in that the certainty equivalent payoff at their optimal hedge may be little different to the certainty equivalent under zero hedging. These reasons are additional to the argument of Simmons (2002) who showed that, if capital markets are efficient, farmers can manage their risk exposure through adjusting their leverage, obviating the need for hedging instruments.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/9232
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University of Western Australia, School of Agricultural and Resource Economics in its series Working Papers with number 9232.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 2007
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ags:uwauwp:9232
Contact details of provider: Postal: 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009
Phone: (61) (8) 6488 1757
Fax: (61) (8) 6488 1098
Web page: http://www.are.uwa.edu.au/Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Feder, Gershon & Just, Richard E & Schmitz, Andrew, 1980. "Futures Markets and the Theory of the Firm under Price Uncertainty," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 94(2), pages 317-28, March.
  2. Lence, Sergio H & Hayes, Dermot J, 1994. " Parameter-Based Decision Making under Estimation Risk: An Application to Futures Trading," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 345-57, March.
  3. Peter Bardsley & M. Harris, 1987. "An Approach To The Econometric Estimation Of Attitudes To Risk In Agriculture," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 31(2), pages 112-126, 08.
  4. Wei Shi & Scott H. Irwin, 2005. "Optimal Hedging with a Subjective View: An Empirical Bayesian Approach," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(4), pages 918-930.
  5. Simmons, Phil, 2002. "Why do farmers have so little interest in futures markets?," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 27(1), pages 1-6, May.
  6. David J. Pannell, 2006. "Flat Earth Economics: The Far-reaching Consequences of Flat Payoff Functions in Economic Decision Making," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 28(4), pages 553-566.
  7. Lapan, Harvey E. & Moschini, GianCarlo, 1994. "Futures Hedging Under Price, Basis and Production Risk," Staff General Research Papers 10041, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  8. F. Douglas Foster & Charles H. Whiteman, 2002. "Bayesian Cross Hedging: An Example From the Soybean Market," Australian Journal of Management, Australian School of Business, vol. 27(2), pages 95-122, December.
  9. Sergio H. Lence & Dermot J. Hayes, 1993. "Empirical Minimum Variance Hedge, The," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 93-wp109, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  10. Carter, Colin A., 1999. "Commodity futures markets: a survey," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 43(2).
  11. Buschena, David E. & Zilberman, David, 1994. "What Do We Know About Decision Making Under Risk And Where Do We Go From Here?," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 19(02), December.
  12. Holthausen, Duncan M, 1979. "Hedging and the Competitive Firm under Price Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(5), pages 989-95, December.
  13. Simmons, Phil, 2002. "Why do farmers have so little interest in futures markets?," Agricultural Economics of Agricultural Economists, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 27(1), May.
  14. Danthine, Jean-Pierre, 1978. "Information, futures prices, and stabilizing speculation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 79-98, February.
  15. Anderson, Ronald W & Danthine, Jean-Pierre, 1983. "The Time Pattern of Hedging and the Volatility of Futures Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(2), pages 249-66, April.
  16. Ronald I. McKinnon, 1967. "Futures Markets, Buffer Stocks, and Income Stability for Primary Producers," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75, pages 844.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:uwauwp:9232. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.