Why do farmers have so little interest in futures markets?
A farm financial model with leverage and investment in two farm enterprises is specified. The model is extended to incorporate futures hedging and the Separation Theorem is used to show that optimal hedging is zero. The assumption of a risk-free asset is relaxed and, while this leads to a violation of the Separation Theorem, the result that optimal hedging is zero is maintained providing that futures markets are efficient. It is concluded that if capital markets are efficient then farmers will have little interest in futures markets except to speculate.© 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
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- Simmons, Phil & Rambaldi, Alicia N., 1997. "Potential demand for hedging by Australian wheat producers," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 41(2), June.
- Harvey Lapan & Giancarlo Moschini, 1994.
"Futures Hedging Under Price, Basis, and Production Risk,"
American Journal of Agricultural Economics,
Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 76(3), pages 465-477.
- Lapan, Harvey E. & Moschini, GianCarlo, 1994. "Futures Hedging Under Price, Basis and Production Risk," Staff General Research Papers 10041, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Newbery, David M., 1988. "On the accuracy of the mean-variance approximation for futures markets," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 63-68.
- Chavas, Jean-Paul & Holt, Matthew T, 1996. "Economic Behavior under Uncertainty: A Joint Analysis of Risk Preferences and Technology," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(2), pages 329-35, May.
- Tsiang, S C, 1972. "The Rationale of the Mean-Standard Deviation Analysis, Skewness Preference, and the Demand for Money," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 62(3), pages 354-71, June.
- B. Wade Brorsen, 1995. "Optimal Hedge Ratios with Risk-Neutral Producers and Nonlinear Borrowing Costs," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 77(1), pages 174-181.
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