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Vertical Restraints and Horizontal Control

Author

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  • Hamilton, Stephen F.
  • Innes, Robert

Abstract

This paper considers vertical restraints in a multi-market retail setting in which each retailer sells the complete line of manufactured goods. Vertical restraints by one manufacturer on the retailers of its product serve as an instrument to exert horizontal control over the retail price of a rival manufactured good. Applications are developed for supermarket retailing, where the manufacturer of a national brand sold at both supermarkets can employ vertical restraints to control the pricing of the retailer's competing private labels, and for the personal computer industry, where the manufacturer of an essential computer component can use vertical restraints to control the pricing of complementary components bundled with the essential component by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).

Suggested Citation

  • Hamilton, Stephen F. & Innes, Robert, 2006. "Vertical Restraints and Horizontal Control," 2006 Annual meeting, July 23-26, Long Beach, CA 21424, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:aaea06:21424
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    File URL: http://purl.umn.edu/21424
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. W. Bentley MacLeod & James M. Malcomson, 1995. "Contract Bargaining with Symmetric Information," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(2), pages 336-367, May.
    2. Daniel P. O'Brien & Greg Shaffer, 1992. "Vertical Control with Bilateral Contracts," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(3), pages 299-308, Autumn.
    3. Rubinstein, Ariel, 1982. "Perfect Equilibrium in a Bargaining Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 97-109, January.
    4. Michael Spence, 1976. "Product Selection, Fixed Costs, and Monopolistic Competition," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(2), pages 217-235.
    5. Nicholas Economides, 2001. "The Microsoft Antitrust Case," Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 7-39, March.
    6. Whinston, Michael D, 1990. "Tying, Foreclosure, and Exclusion," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(4), pages 837-859, September.
    7. Carbajo, Jose & de Meza, David & Seidmann, Daniel J, 1990. "A Strategic Motivation for Commodity Bundling," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 283-298, March.
    8. Bruce W. Marion, 1998. "Changing power relationships in US food industry: Brokerage arrangements for private label products," Agribusiness, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(2), pages 85-93.
    9. Rey, Patrick & Tirole, Jean, 1986. "The Logic of Vertical Restraints," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 921-939, December.
    10. Patrick Bolton & Giacomo Bonanno, 1988. "Vertical Restraints in a Model of Vertical Differentiation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 103(3), pages 555-570.
    11. Lal, Rajiv & Matutes, Carmen, 1994. "Retail Pricing and Advertising Strategies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67(3), pages 345-370, July.
    12. Leslie M. Marx & Greg Shaffer, 1999. "Predatory Accommodation: Below-Cost Pricing without Exclusion in Intermediate Goods Markets," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 30(1), pages 22-43, Spring.
    13. Reiffen, David, 1999. "On the equivalence of resale price maintenance and quantity restrictions," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 277-288, February.
    14. Innes, Robert & Hamilton, Stephen F., 2006. "Naked slotting fees for vertical control of multi-product retail markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, pages 303-318.
    15. G.F. Mathewson & R.A. Winter, 1984. "An Economic Theory of Vertical Restraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(1), pages 27-38, Spring.
    16. Klein, Benjamin & Murphy, Kevin M, 1988. "Vertical Restraints as Contract Enforcement Mechanisms," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 31(2), pages 265-297, October.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Noriaki Matsushima & Akira Miyaoka, 2013. "Who benefits from resale-below-cost laws?," ISER Discussion Paper 0875, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
    2. Rey, Patrick & Verge, T., 2016. "Secret contracting in multilateral relations," TSE Working Papers 16-744, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Jul 2017.
    3. Gabrielsen, Tommy Staahl & Johansen, Bjørn Olav, 2013. "Resale Price Maintenance And Up-Front Payments: Achieving Horizontal Control Under Seller And Buyer Power," Working Papers in Economics 02/13, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    4. Hamilton, Stephen F. & Bontems, Philippe & Lepore, Jason, 2015. "Oligopoly intermediation, relative rivalry and market conduct," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 49-59.
    5. repec:eee:ecolet:v:158:y:2017:i:c:p:34-36 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:kap:jeczfn:v:121:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s00712-017-0529-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Gabrielsen, Tommy S. & Johansen, Bjørn Olav & Lømo, Teis L., 2015. "Resale price maintenance in two-sided markets," Working Papers in Economics 08/15, University of Bergen, Department of Economics.
    8. Tommy Staahl Gabrielsen & Bjørn Olav Johansen, 2017. "Resale Price Maintenance with Secret Contracts and Retail Service Externalities," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(1), pages 63-87, February.
    9. Hamilton, Stephen & Innes, Robert, 2017. "Slotting allowances and retail product variety under oligopoly," Economics Letters, Elsevier, pages 34-36.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    contracting; vertical restraints; monopolization.; Marketing; L13; L14; L42; D43.;

    JEL classification:

    • L13 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Oligopoly and Other Imperfect Markets
    • L14 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Transactional Relationships; Contracts and Reputation
    • L42 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts

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