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Internationalization of U.S. Doctorate Education

In: Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment

Author

Listed:
  • John Bound
  • Sarah Turner
  • Patrick Walsh

Abstract

The representation of a large number of students born outside the United States among the ranks of doctorate recipients from U.S. universities is one of the most significant transformations in U.S. graduate education and the international market for highly-trained workers in science and engineering in the last quarter century. Students from outside the U.S. accounted for 51% of PhD recipients in science and engineering fields in 2003, up from 27% in 1973. In the physical sciences, engineering and economics the representation of foreign students among PhD recipients is yet more striking; among doctorate recipients in 2003, those from outside the U.S. accounted for 50% of degrees in the physical sciences, 67% in engineering and 68% in economics. Our analysis highlights the important role of changes in demand among foreign born in explaining the growth and distribution of doctorates awarded in science and engineering. Expansion in undergraduate degree receipt in many countries has a direct effect on the demand for advanced training in the U.S. Changes in the supply side of the U.S. graduate education market may also differentially affect the representation of foreign students in U.S. universities. Supply shocks such as increases in federal support for the sciences will have relatively large effects on the representation in the U.S. of doctorate students from countries where demand is relatively elastic. Understanding the determinants -- and consequences -- of changes over time in the representation of foreign born students among doctorate recipients from U.S. universities informs the design of policies affecting the science and engineering workforce.
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Suggested Citation

  • John Bound & Sarah Turner & Patrick Walsh, 2009. "Internationalization of U.S. Doctorate Education," NBER Chapters,in: Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, pages 59-97 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:11618
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Richard B. Freeman & Tanwin Chang & Hanley Chiang, 2009. "Supporting "The Best and Brightest" in Science and Engineering: NSF Graduate Research Fellowships," NBER Chapters,in: Science and Engineering Careers in the United States: An Analysis of Markets and Employment, pages 19-57 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Richard B. Freeman & Emily Jin & Chia-Yu Shen, 2004. "Where Do New US-Trained Science-Engineering PhDs come from?," NBER Working Papers 10554, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. William Shobe & John L. Knapp, 2007. "The Economic Impact of the University of Virginia: How a Major Research University Affects the Local and State Economies," Reports 2007-01, Center for Economic and Policy Studies.
    2. Paula Stephan & Chiara Franzoni & Giuseppe Scellato, 2013. "Choice of Country by the Foreign Born for PhD and Postdoctoral Study: A Sixteen-Country Perspective," NBER Working Papers 18809, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M. & Wood, Danielle & Roos, Dan & Newman, Dava, 2016. "Architecting complex international science, technology and innovation partnerships (CISTIPs): A study of four global MIT collaborations," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 38-56.
    4. Paula E. Stephan, 2010. "The "I"s Have It: Immigration and Innovation, the Perspective from Academe," Innovation Policy and the Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(1), pages 83-127.
    5. Richard B. Freeman & Wei Huang, 2015. "Collaborating with People Like Me: Ethnic Coauthorship within the United States," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(S1), pages 289-318.
    6. repec:eee:ecanpo:v:57:y:2018:i:c:p:33-43 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Dustmann, Christian & Glitz, Albrecht, 2011. "Migration and Education," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
    8. Kahn, Shulamit & MacGarvie, Megan, 2016. "Do return requirements increase international knowledge diffusion? Evidence from the Fulbright program," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(6), pages 1304-1322.
    9. Jeffrey Grogger & Gordon H. Hanson, 2013. "Attracting Talent: Location Choices of Foreign-Born PhDs in the US," NBER Working Papers 18780, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. McAusland, Carol & Kuhn, Peter, 2011. "Bidding for brains: Intellectual property rights and the international migration of knowledge workers," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(1), pages 77-87, May.
    11. John Bound & Sarah Turner, 2010. "Coming to America: Where Do International Doctorate Students Study and How Do US Universities Respond?," NBER Chapters,in: American Universities in a Global Market, pages 101-127 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Ding, Lan & Li, Haizheng, 2012. "Social networks and study abroad — The case of Chinese visiting students in the US," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 580-589.
    13. Patrick Gaule & Mario Piacentini, 2015. "Immigration and Innovation: Chinese Graduate Students in U.S. Universities," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp529, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    14. repec:eee:pubeco:v:156:y:2017:i:c:p:170-184 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Hird, Mackenzie D. & Pfotenhauer, Sebastian M., 2017. "How complex international partnerships shape domestic research clusters: Difference-in-difference network formation and research re-orientation in the MIT Portugal Program," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 557-572.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I2 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education
    • I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions

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