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Do Poverty and Income Inequality Mediate the Association Between Agricultural Land Inequality and Human Development?

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  • Muhammad Qasim

    () (University of Lahore (UOL)
    National College of Business Administration and Economics (NCBA&E))

  • Zahid Pervaiz

    () (National College of Business Administration and Economics (NCBA&E))

  • Amatul Razzaq Chaudhary

    () (National College of Business Administration and Economics (NCBA&E))

Abstract

Present study explores the association between agricultural land inequality and human development by investigating the mediating role of poverty and income inequality. For this purpose, agriculture land inequality, poverty, income inequality and Human Development Index have been calculated for districts of Punjab (Pakistan) by utilizing the panel data from different waves of Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey conducted during the period of 2003–2014. By employing panel Ordinary Least Square, Fixed and Random Effects approach, we have found that agricultural land inequality is negatively associated with human development. Moreover, estimates of panel Two Stage Least Square and Generalized Method of Moments confirm the mediating role of poverty and income inequality in the relationship between agricultural land inequality and human development. Agricultural land inequality is detrimental for human development by generating poverty and income inequality. Redistribution of agricultural land through different strategies like agricultural land reforms can be useful to reduce poverty and income inequality and to bring improvements in human development particularly in developing countries like Pakistan.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Qasim & Zahid Pervaiz & Amatul Razzaq Chaudhary, 2020. "Do Poverty and Income Inequality Mediate the Association Between Agricultural Land Inequality and Human Development?," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 151(1), pages 115-134, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:151:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s11205-020-02375-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s11205-020-02375-y
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agricultural land inequality; Poverty; Income inequality; Human development; Association; Mediation;

    JEL classification:

    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • P36 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Consumer Economics; Health; Education and Training; Welfare, Income, Wealth, and Poverty
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development

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