Financial liberalization and firms’ capital structure adjustments evidence from Southeast Asia and South America
This paper investigates the impact of financial liberalization on the adjustment of debt ratios in 12 emerging markets using firm-level data from 1991 to 2004. The results support the central hypothesis of this paper that adjustment costs are important in explaining firms’ adjustment toward their debt ratio targets. Our results show that deviations from targets are halved within 1.09 years in South America and 1.19 years in Southeast Asia, suggesting speed of adjustment is relatively faster in South American countries than Southeast Asian countries. Furthermore, our results show that after full liberalization those countries where rule of law and creditors rights were properly enforced, firms had higher adjustment speed compared to those countries where such enforcement was not present.The estimated adjustment coefficients imply that on average firms’ adjustment speeds have increased in all South American countries over the period of financial liberalization. On the contrary, firms’ adjustment speeds did not increase in Southeast Asian countries, reflecting the uneven effect of liberalization on the firms’ financing behaviour in Asian countries. There was a significant reduction in time (in years) taken to half the gap between actual debt ratios and targets only in Pakistan and South Korea. This finding supports the idea of uncertain impact of financial liberalization programs on the domestic financial markets in those emerging markets which started opening up their market and integrating with the rest of the world latter than others. These findings have significant implications for the sequence of banking sector liberalization in the emerging markets. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2013
Volume (Year): 37 (2013)
Issue (Month): 1 (January)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.springer.com|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.springer.com/economics/journal/12197/PS2|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ang, James B. & McKibbin, Warwick J., 2007.
"Financial liberalization, financial sector development and growth: Evidence from Malaysia,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 215-233, September.
- James B. Ang & Warwick J. McKibbin, 2005. "Financial Liberalization, Financial Sector Development And Growth: Evidence From Malaysia," CAMA Working Papers 2005-05, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
- Kim, E Han & Singal, Vijay, 2000. "Stock Market Openings: Experience of Emerging Economies," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(1), pages 25-66, January.
- Bekaert, Geert & Harvey, Campbell R. & Lundblad, Christian, 2001.
"Emerging equity markets and economic development,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 465-504, December.
- Stiglitz, Joseph E., 2000. "Capital Market Liberalization, Economic Growth, and Instability," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1075-1086, June.
- Barajas, Adolfo & Steiner, Roberto & Salazar, Natalia, 2000. "The impact of liberalization and foreign investment in Colombia's financial sector," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 157-196, October.
- Vilasuso, Jon & Minkler, Alanson, 2001. "Agency costs, asset specificity, and the capital structure of the firm," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 55-69, January.
- Francis E. Warnock & Hali J Edison, 2001.
"A Simple Measure of the Intensity of Capital Controls,"
IMF Working Papers
01/180, International Monetary Fund.
- Edison, Hali J. & Warnock, Francis E., 2003. "A simple measure of the intensity of capital controls," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1-2), pages 81-103, February.
- Hali J. Edison & Francis E. Warnock, 2001. "A simple measure of the intensity of capital controls," International Finance Discussion Papers 708, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Romain Ranciere & Aaron Tornell & Frank Westermann, 2006.
"Decomposing the Effects of Financial Liberalization: Crises vs. Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
12806, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ranciere, Romain & Tornell, Aaron & Westermann, Frank, 2006. "Decomposing the effects of financial liberalization: Crises vs. growth," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(12), pages 3331-3348, December.
- Romain Ranciere & Aaron Tornell & Frank Westermann, 2006. "Decomposing the Effects of Financial Liberalization: Crises vs. Growth," Working Papers 74, Institute of Empirical Economic Research.
- Todd Mitton, 2008. "Why Have Debt Ratios Increased for Firms in Emerging Markets?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 14(1), pages 127-151.
- King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross, 1993.
"Finance and growth : Schumpeter might be right,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
1083, The World Bank.
- James Alm & Robert Buckley, 1998. "Are Government Revenues From Financial Repression Worth the Costs?," Public Finance Review, SAGE Publishing, vol. 26(3), pages 187-213, May.
- Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey, 1997.
"Foreign Speculators and Emerging Equity Markets,"
William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series
79, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Paul Krugman, 1999. "Balance Sheets, the Transfer Problem, and Financial Crises," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 6(4), pages 459-472, November.
- Driffield, Nigel & Pal, Sarmistha, 2001. "The East Asian crisis and financing corporate investment: is there a cause for concern?," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 507-527.
- Athey, Michael J & Reeser, Wende D, 2000. " Asymmetric Information, Industrial Policy, and Corporate Investment in India," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 62(2), pages 267-92, May.
- Booth, L. & Asli Demirgu-Kunt, V.A. & Maksimovic, V., 1999.
"Capital Structure in Developing Countries,"
Rotman School of Management - Finance
00-001, Rotman School of Management, University of Toronto.
- de Jong, A. & Kabir, R. & Nguyen, T.T., 2007.
"Capital Structure around the World: The Roles of Firm- and Country-Specific Determinants,"
ERIM Report Series Research in Management
ERS-2007-058-F&A, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
- de Jong, Abe & Kabir, Rezaul & Nguyen, Thuy Thu, 2008. "Capital structure around the world: The roles of firm- and country-specific determinants," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(9), pages 1954-1969, September.
- Fischer, Edwin O & Heinkel, Robert & Zechner, Josef, 1989. " Dynamic Capital Structure Choice: Theory and Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 19-40, March.
- Martin Feldstein & Charles Horioka, 1979.
"Domestic Savings and International Capital Flows,"
NBER Working Papers
0310, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicolás S., 1945-, 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Working papers 1523-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
- Atje, Raymond & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1993. "Stock markets and development," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 632-640, April.
- Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996.
"Law and Finance,"
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1768, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W., 1998. "Law and Finance," Scholarly Articles 3451310, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silane & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "Law and Finance," NBER Working Papers 5661, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, . "Law and Finance," Working Paper 19451, Harvard University OpenScholar.
- Rashid Ameer, 2007. "Time-varying Cost of Equity Capital in Southeast Asian Countries," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 21(2), pages 207-238, 06.
- Bhattacharya, Rina, 1997. "Pace, sequencing and credibility of structural reforms," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1045-1061, July.
- Patro, Dilip K. & Wald, John K., 2005. "Firm characteristics and the impact of emerging market liberalizations," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(7), pages 1671-1695, July.
- Kim, E Han & Singal, Vijay, 2000. "Erratum [Stock Market Openings: Experience of Emerging Economies]," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(4), pages na, October.
- Abdelhak S Senhadji & Charles Collyns, 2002. "Lending Booms, Real Estate Bubbles and the Asian Crisis," IMF Working Papers 02/20, International Monetary Fund.
- Panicos O. Demetriades & Kul B. Luintel, 1997.
"The Direct Costs Of Financial Repression: Evidence From India,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 311-320, May.
- Panicos Demetriades & Kul B. Luintel, 1995. "The Direct Costs of Financial Repression: Evidence from India," Keele Department of Economics Discussion Papers (1995-2001) 95/12, Department of Economics, Keele University.
- Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, 1994.
"What Do We Know About Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data,"
NBER Working Papers
4875, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rajan, Raghuram G & Zingales, Luigi, 1995. " What Do We Know about Capital Structure? Some Evidence from International Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(5), pages 1421-60, December.
- Agarwal, Sumit & Mohtadi, Hamid, 2004. "Financial markets and the financing choice of firms: Evidence from developing countries," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 57-70.
- Flannery, Mark J. & Rangan, Kasturi P., 2006. "Partial adjustment toward target capital structures," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 469-506, March.
- King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross, 1993. "Finance, entrepreneurship and growth: Theory and evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 513-542, December.
- Robert Lensink & Remco van der Molen & Shubashis Gangopadhyay, 2003. "Business groups, financing constraints and investment: the case of India," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(2), pages 93-119.
- Henry, Peter Blair, 2000. "Do stock market liberalizations cause investment booms?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 301-334.
- de Miguel, Alberto & Pindado, Julio, 2001. "Determinants of capital structure: new evidence from Spanish panel data," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 77-99, March.
- Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991.
"Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
- Tom Doan, . "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Huang, Rongbing & Ritter, Jay R., 2009. "Testing Theories of Capital Structure and Estimating the Speed of Adjustment," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(02), pages 237-271, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:jecfin:v:37:y:2013:i:1:p:1-32. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.