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Disease prevalence, disease incidence, and mortality in the United States and in England

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  • James Banks
  • Alastair Muriel
  • James Smith

    ()

Abstract

We find disease incidence and prevalence are both higher among Americans in age groups 55-64 and 70-80 indicating that Americans suffer from higher past cumulative disease risk and experience higher immediate risk of new disease onset compared to the English. In contrast, age specific mortality rates are similar in the two countries with an even higher risk among the English after age 65. Our second aim explains large financial gradients in mortality in the two countries. Among 55-64 year olds, we estimate similar health gradients in income and wealth in both countries, but for 70-80 year old, we find no income gradient in UK. Standard behavioral risk factors (work, marriage, obesity, exercise, and smoking) almost fully explain income gradients among 55-64 years old in both countries and a significant part among Americans 70-80 years old. The most likely explanation of no English income gradient relates to their income benefit system. Below the median, retirement benefits are largely flat and independent of past income and hence past health during the working years. Finally, we report evidence using a long panel of American respondents that their subsequent mortality is not related to large changes in wealth experienced during the prior ten year period.
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Suggested Citation

  • James Banks & Alastair Muriel & James Smith, 2010. "Disease prevalence, disease incidence, and mortality in the United States and in England," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 47(1), pages 211-231, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:demogr:v:47:y:2010:i:1:p:s211-s231
    DOI: 10.1353/dem.2010.0008
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. James Smith, 2004. "Unravelling the SES health connection," IFS Working Papers W04/02, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
    2. F. Thomas Juster & Richard Suzman, 1995. " An Overview of the Health and Retirement Study," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30, pages s7-s56.
    3. F. Thomas Juster & James P. Smith, 2004. "Improving the Quality of Economic Data: Lessons from the HRS and AHEAD," Labor and Demography 0402010, EconWPA.
    4. Raquel Fonseca Benito & Pierre-Carl Michaud & Titus Galama & Arie Kapteyn, 2009. "On the Rise of Health Spending and Longevity," Working Papers WR-722, RAND Corporation.
    5. Hills, John, 2004. "Inequality and the State," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199276646.
    6. David M. Cutler & Ellen Meara, 1998. "The Medical Costs of the Young and Old: A Forty-Year Perspective," NBER Chapters,in: Frontiers in the Economics of Aging, pages 215-246 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Samuel H. Preston & Jessica Y. Ho, 2009. "Low Life Expectancy in the United States: Is the Health Care System at Fault?," NBER Working Papers 15213, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Fonseca, Raquel & Michaud, Pierre-Carl & Galama, Titus & Kapteyn, Arie, 2009. "On The Rise of Health Spending and Longevity," IZA Discussion Papers 4622, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    9. James P. Smith, 1999. "Healthy Bodies and Thick Wallets: The Dual Relation between Health and Economic Status," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(2), pages 145-166, Spring.
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    Cited by:

    1. James Banks & Alastair Muriel & James P. Smith, 2010. "Attrition and Health in Ageing Studies Evidence from ELSA and HRS," Working Papers WR-784, RAND Corporation.
    2. Strauss, John & Lei, Xiaoyan & Park, Albert & Shen, Yan & Smith, James P. & Yang, Zhe & Zhao, Yaohui, 2010. "Health Outcomes and Socio-Economic Status among the Elderly in China: Evidence from the CHARLS Pilot," IZA Discussion Papers 5152, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. James Banks & James P. Smith, 2011. "International Comparisons in Health Economics Evidence from Aging Studies," Working Papers WR-880, RAND Corporation.
    4. Aïda Solé-Auró & Pierre-Carl Michaud & Michael Hurd & Eileen Crimmins, 2015. "Disease Incidence and Mortality Among Older Americans and Europeans," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 52(2), pages 593-611, April.
    5. Choi, HwaJung & Burgard, Sarah & Elo, Irma T. & Heisler, Michele, 2015. "Are older adults living in more equal counties healthier than older adults living in more unequal counties? A propensity score matching approach," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 82-90.
    6. Datta Gupta, Nabanita & Kleinjans, Kristin J. & Larsen, Mona, 2011. "The Effect of an Acute Health Shock on Work Behavior: Evidence from Different Health Care Regimes," IZA Discussion Papers 5843, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Irene Mosca & Rose Kenny, 2014. "Exploring differences in prevalence of diagnosed, measured and undiagnosed hypertension: the case of Ireland and the United States of America," International Journal of Public Health, Springer;Swiss School of Public Health (SSPH+), vol. 59(5), pages 759-767, October.
    8. Iris Kesternich & Bettina Siflinger & James P. Smith & Joachim K. Winter, 2014. "The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 96(1), pages 103-118, March.
    9. Mark R. Cullen & Clint Cummins & Victor R. Fuchs, 2012. "Geographic and Racial Variation in Premature Mortality in the US: Analyzing the Disparities," NBER Working Papers 17901, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. James Banks & Zoe Oldfield & James P. Smith, 2011. "Childhood Health and Differences in Late-Life Health Outcomes between England and the United States," Working Papers WR-860, RAND Corporation.
    11. repec:ran:wpaper:774 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Iris Kesternich & Bettina Siflinger & James P. Smith & Joachim K. Winter, 2012. "The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe," Working Papers WR-917, RAND Corporation.

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    JEL classification:

    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General

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