Health Outcomes and Socio-Economic Status among the Elderly in China: Evidence from the CHARLS Pilot
We are concerned in this paper with measuring health outcomes among the elderly in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces, China, and examining the relationships between different dimensions of health status and measures of socio-economic status (SES). We use the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) pilot data to document health conditions among the elderly in Gansu and Zhejiang provinces, where the survey was fielded. We use a very rich set of health indicators that include both self-reported measures and biomarkers. We also examine correlations between these health outcomes and two important indicators of socioeconomic status (SES): education and log of per capita expenditure (log pce), our preferred measure of household resources. While there exists a very large literature that examines the relationships between SES and health measures, little has been done on Chinese data to see whether correlations reported in many other countries are replicated in China, particularly so for the aged. In general education tends to be positively correlated with better health outcomes, as it is in other countries. However, unmeasured community influences turn out to be highly important, much more so than one usually finds in other countries. While it is not yet clear which aspects of communities matter and why they matter, we set up an agenda for future research on this topic. We also find a large degree of under-diagnosis of hypertension, a major health problems that afflicts the aged. This implies that the current health system is not well prepared to address the rapid aging of the Chinese population, at least not in Gansu and Zhejiang.
|Date of creation:||Aug 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Thomas, Duncan & Strauss, John, 1997.
"Health and wages: Evidence on men and women in urban Brazil,"
Journal of Econometrics,
Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 159-185, March.
- Thomas, D. & Strauss, J., 1997. "Health and Wages: Evidence on Men and Women in Urban Brazil," Papers 97-05, RAND - Reprint Series.
- James P. Smith, 2009.
"The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 91(3), pages 478-489, August.
- James Smith, 2005. "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes," Labor and Demography 0511001, EconWPA.
- James P. Smith, 2005. "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes," Working Papers 319, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
- James P Smith, 2008. "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes," Working Papers 200814, Geary Institute, University College Dublin.
- Smith, James P., 2009. "The Impact of Childhood Health on Adult Labor Market Outcomes," IZA Discussion Papers 4274, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Dana P. Goldman & James P. Smith, 2004. "Can Patient Self-Management Help Explain the SES Health Gradient?," HEW 0403004, EconWPA.
- Cutler, David M. & Lleras-Muney, Adriana, 2010. "Understanding differences in health behaviors by education," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 1-28, January.
- Agar Brugiavini & Tullio Jappelli & Guglielmo Weber, 2002. "The Survey on Health, Aging and Wealth," CSEF Working Papers 86, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
- James Banks & Alastair Muriel & James Smith, 2010.
"Disease prevalence, disease incidence, and mortality in the United States and in England,"
Springer, vol. 47(1), pages S211-S231, March.
- Banks, James & Muriel, Alastair & Smith, James P., 2010. "Disease Prevalence, Disease Incidence, and Mortality in the United States and in England," IZA Discussion Papers 4992, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Das, Jishnu & Do, Quy-Toan & Friedman, Jed & McKenzie, David & Scott, Kinnon, 2007. "Mental health and poverty in developing countries: Revisiting the relationship," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 467-480, August.
- John J. McArdle & James P. Smith & Robert Willis, 2011.
"Cognition and Economic Outcomes in the Health and Retirement Survey,"
in: Explorations in the Economics of Aging, pages 209-233
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- McArdle, John J. & Smith, James P. & Willis, Robert, 2009. "Cognition and Economic Outcomes in the Health and Retirement Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 4269, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- John J. McArdle & James P. Smith & Robert Willis, 2009. "Cognition and Economic Outcomes in the Health and Retirement Survey," NBER Working Papers 15266, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James P. Smith, 1999. "Healthy Bodies and Thick Wallets: The Dual Relation between Health and Economic Status," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(2), pages 145-166, Spring.
- Friedman, Jed & Thomas, Duncan, 2007.
"Psychological health before, during, and after an economic crisis : results from Indonesia, 1993 - 2000,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
4386, The World Bank.
- Duncan Thomas, 2008. "Psychological Health Before, During, and After an Economic Crisis: Results from Indonesia, 1993--2000," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 23(1), pages 57-76, November.
- Lance, Peter M. & Akin, John S. & Dow, William H. & Loh, Chung-Ping, 2004. "Is cigarette smoking in poorer nations highly sensitive to price?: Evidence from Russia and China," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 173-189, January.
- Adam Wagstaff & Winnie Yip & Magnus Lindelow & William C. Hsiao, 2009. "China's health system and its reform: a review of recent studies," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(S2), pages S7-S23, July.
- John A. Maluccio & John Hoddinott & Jere R. Behrman & Reynaldo Martorell & Agnes R. Quisumbing & Aryeh D. Stein, 2009. "The Impact of Improving Nutrition During Early Childhood on Education among Guatemalan Adults," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(537), pages 734-763, 04.
- Don Kenkel & Dean R. Lillard & Feng Liu, 2009. "An analysis of life‐course smoking behavior in China," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(S2), pages S147-S156, July.
- Firman Witoelar & John Strauss, 2009. "Socioeconomic Success and Health in Later Life: Evidence from the Indonesia Family Life Survey," Working Papers 704, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp5152. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.