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A roma és nem roma tanulók teszteredményei közti különbségekről és e különbségek okairól
[The Roma/non-Roma test-score gap in Hungarian education]

  • Kertesi, Gábor
  • Kézdi, Gábor

    ()

Tanulmányunk országosan reprezentatív adatokra támaszkodva mérhetővé teszi a roma fiatalok készségbeli lemaradásait, és megpróbál számot adni e lemaradások valószínű társadalmi okairól. A kompetenciamérések olvasás-szövegértési és matematikai teszteredményei alapján a nyolcadik évfolyamos roma tanulók lemaradása tekintélyes; éppen akkora, mint amekkora a hasonló korú fehér és fekete bőrű diákok közti különbség volt az Egyesült Államokban az 1980-as években. A lemaradások mögött nem etnikai sajátosságok, hanem társadalmi összetételbeli (jövedelmi, iskolázottsági és lakóhelyi) különbségek állnak. A roma tanulók társadalmi hátrányai - az egészségi állapot kisebb, de nem elhanyagolható szerepe mellett - döntő részben két közvetítő mechanizmuson keresztül válnak tanulmányi lemaradásokká: a roma tanulók otthoni környezetükön belül kevésbé jutnak hozzá a készségeik fejlődéséhez fontos erőforrásokhoz, iskolai pályafutásuk pedig rosszabb minőségű oktatási környezetben történik. A családi nevelési környezeti hátrányokat magukat is nagyrészt az életkörülmények alakítják. Az iskolai hátrányok nagyobb részét is az alacsony társadalmi státus magyarázza, de a roma tanulók esetében erre még további hátrányként rárakódik az etnikai szegregáció hatása is. Az eredmények alapján a szegénység enyhítése mellett megfelelően célzott és szervezett szakpolitikai intézkedések is enyhíthetik a szegény sorban élő roma és nem roma gyermekek lemaradását. Journal of Economic Literature (JEL) kód: I20, J15.

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Article provided by Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation) in its journal Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences).

Volume (Year): LIX (2012)
Issue (Month): 7 ()
Pages: 798-853

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Handle: RePEc:ksa:szemle:1326
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