Modelling the conditional volatility of commodity index futures as a regime switching process
Commodity index futures offer a versatile tool for gaining different forms of exposure to commodity markets. Volatility is a critical input in many of these applications. This paper examines issues in modelling the conditional variance of futures returns based on the Goldman Sachs Commodity Index (GSCI). Given that commodity markets tend to be 'choppy' (Webb, 1987), a general econometric model is proposed that allows for abrupt changes or regime shifts in volatility, transition probabilities which vary explicitly with observable fundamentals such as the basis, GARCH dynamics, seasonal variations and conditional leptokurtosis. The model is applied to daily futures returns on the GSCI over 1992-1997. The results show clear evidence of regime shifts in conditional mean and volatility. Once regime shifts are accounted for, GARCH effects are minimal. Consistent with the theory of storage, returns are more likely to switch to the high-variance state when the basis is negative than when the basis is positive. The regime switching model also performs well in forecasting the daily volatility compared to standard GARCH models without regime switches. The model should be of interest to sophisticated traders who base their trading strategies on short-term volatility movements, managed commodity funds interested in hedging an underlying diversified portfolio of commodities and investors of options and other derivatives tied to GSCI futures contracts. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Volume (Year): 16 (2001)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/0883-7252/|
|Order Information:|| Web: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/jcatalog/subscribe.jsp?issn=0883-7252 Email: |
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hansen, Bruce E, 1992. "The Likelihood Ratio Test under Nonstandard Conditions: Testing the Markov Switching Model of GNP," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 7(S), pages 61-82, Suppl. De.
- Scholes, Myron & Williams, Joseph, 1977. "Estimating betas from nonsynchronous data," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 309-327, December.
- Baillie, Richard T. & DeGennaro, Ramon P., 1990.
"Stock Returns and Volatility,"
Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis,
Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(02), pages 203-214, June.
- Baillie, R.T. & Degennaro, R.P., 1988. "Stock Returns And Volatility," Papers 8803, Michigan State - Econometrics and Economic Theory.
- Chou, Ray Yeutien, 1988. "Volatility Persistence and Stock Valuations: Some Empirical Evidence Using Garch," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 3(4), pages 279-294, October-D.
- Lo, Andrew W. & Craig MacKinlay, A., 1990. "An econometric analysis of nonsynchronous trading," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1-2), pages 181-211.
- Andrew W. Lo & Craig A. MacKinlay, "undated". "An Econometric Analysis of Nonsyschronous-Trading," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 19-89, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
- Andrew W. Lo & A. Craig MacKinlay, 1989. "An Econometric Analysis of Nonsynchronous Trading," NBER Working Papers 2960, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Angus Deaton & Guy Laroque, 1992. "On the Behaviour of Commodity Prices," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 59(1), pages 1-23.
- Deaton, A. & Laroque, G., 1989. "On The Behavior Of Commodity Prices," Papers 145, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
- Angus Deaton & Guy Laroque, 1990. "On The Behavior of Commodity Prices," NBER Working Papers 3439, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Deaton, A. & Laroque, G., 1989. "On The Behavior Of Commodity Prices," Papers 145, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Public and International Affairs.
- French, Kenneth R. & Schwert, G. William & Stambaugh, Robert F., 1987. "Expected stock returns and volatility," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 3-29, September.
- French, Kenneth R, 1986. "Detecting Spot Price Forecasts in Futures Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 39-54, April.
- Berry Wilson & Reena Aggarwal & Carla Inclan, 1996. "Detecting volatility changes across the oil sector," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 313-330, 05.
- Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
- Tim Bollerslev, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," EERI Research Paper Series EERI RP 1986/01, Economics and Econometrics Research Institute (EERI), Brussels.
- Bailey, Warren & Chang, K C, 1993. " Macroeconomic Influences and the Variability of the Commodity Futures Basis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(2), pages 555-573, June.
- Eric C. Chang & Chan‐Wung Kim, 1988. "Day of the week effects and commodity price changes," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(2), pages 229-241, 04.
- Bresnahan, Timothy F & Spiller, Pablo T, 1986. "Futures Market Backwardation under Risk Neutrality," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 24(3), pages 429-441, July.
- Garcia, Rene, 1998. "Asymptotic Null Distribution of the Likelihood Ratio Test in Markov Switching Models," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 39(3), pages 763-788, August.
- René Garcia, 1995. "Asymptotic Null Distribution of the Likelihood Ratio Test in Markov Switching Models," CIRANO Working Papers 95s-07, CIRANO.
- Serletis, Apostolos, 1992. "Maturity effects in energy futures," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 150-157, April.
- Deb, Partha, 1997. "Finite sample properties of the ARCH class of models with stochastic volatility," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 27-34, August.
- Bollerslev, Tim & Chou, Ray Y. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1992. "ARCH modeling in finance : A review of the theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 5-59.
- Bollerslev, Tim, 1987. "A Conditionally Heteroskedastic Time Series Model for Speculative Prices and Rates of Return," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(3), pages 542-547, August.
- Hamilton, James D. & Susmel, Raul, 1994. "Autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity and changes in regime," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1-2), pages 307-333.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "RATS programs to estimate Hamilton-Susmel Markov Switching ARCH model," Statistical Software Components RTZ00083, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Lester G. Telser, 1958. "Futures Trading and the Storage of Cotton and Wheat," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 66, pages 233-233.
- Atchison, Michael D & Butler, Kirt C & Simonds, Richard R, 1987. " Nonsynchronous Security Trading and Market Index Autocorrelation," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(1), pages 111-118, March.
- Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)