IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/inm/ormksc/v23y2004i4p476-489.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

An Empirical Analysis of Territorial Encroachment Within Franchised and Company-Owned Branded Chains

Author

Listed:
  • Arturs Kalnins

    (Marshall School of Business, Management and Organization Department (BRI306), University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0808)

Abstract

Franchisees within large branded chains loudly complain of a form of channel conflict known as “encroachment” or “impact.” Encroachment occurs when franchisors add new units of their brand proximately to their franchisees' existing units. Franchisees claim that their revenues have substantially decreased as a result of encroaching same-brand entry. The topic of encroachment has not only dominated franchisee association agendas and trade journal headlines but has also become a hot topic for politicians and policymakers. Yet, until now, evidence of encroachment has been strictly anecdotal. This paper provides the first systematic evidence of encroachment. Using revenue data from the Texas lodging industry in the 1990s, I find that when franchisors approve new same-brand units in the vicinity of incumbent units, these new units cannibalize the incumbents' revenues. In contrast to the result for franchisors, the addition of a new unit by company-owned brands in the vicinity of same-brand units is associated with an increase in the incumbents' revenues. This contrast suggests that encroaching behavior is caused by incentives that result from the governance form of franchising and is not simply an outcome that accompanies all expansion. This finding informs theory on governance forms and exclusive territories. Implications for practitioners and policy are also discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Arturs Kalnins, 2004. "An Empirical Analysis of Territorial Encroachment Within Franchised and Company-Owned Branded Chains," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(4), pages 476-489, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:inm:ormksc:v:23:y:2004:i:4:p:476-489
    DOI: 10.1287/mksc.1040.0082
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mksc.1040.0082
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1287/mksc.1040.0082?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Arturs Kalnins, 2003. "Hamburger Prices and Spatial Econometrics," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 591-616, December.
    2. Michael, Steven C. & Moore, Hollie J., 1995. "Returns to franchising," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 2(1-2), pages 133-155, October.
    3. Jeffrey H. Fischer & Joseph E. Harrington Jr., 1996. "Product Variety and Firm Agglomeration," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 27(2), pages 281-309, Summer.
    4. Brickley, James A. & Dark, Frederick H., 1987. "The choice of organizational form The case of franchising," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 401-420, June.
    5. Baye, Michael R & Crocker, Keith J & Ju, Jiandong, 1996. "Divisionalization, Franchising, and Divestiture Incentives in Oligopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 223-236, March.
    6. Shantanu Dutta & Mark Bergen & George John, 1994. "The Governance of Exclusive Territories When Dealers can Bootleg," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 13(1), pages 83-99.
    7. Eric D. Darr & Linda Argote & Dennis Epple, 1995. "The Acquisition, Transfer, and Depreciation of Knowledge in Service Organizations: Productivity in Franchises," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 41(11), pages 1750-1762, November.
    8. Arturs Kalnins & Francine Lafontaine, 2004. "Multi-unit Ownership in Franchising: Evidence from the Fast-Food Industry in Texas," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(4), pages 747-761, Winter.
    9. Francine Lafontaine & Kathryn L. Shaw, 1999. "The Dynamics of Franchise Contracting: Evidence from Panel Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(5), pages 1041-1080, October.
    10. Joskow, Andrew S. & Werden, Gregory J. & Johnson, Richard L., 1994. "Entry, exit, and performance in airline markets," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 457-471, December.
    11. J. Miguel Villas-Boas, 1998. "Product Line Design for a Distribution Channel," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 17(2), pages 156-169.
    12. Ramarao Desiraju, 2004. "Costs and Benefits of Inducing Intrabrand Competition: The Role of Limited Liability," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(3), pages 429-450, March.
    13. Francine Lafontaine, 1992. "Agency Theory and Franchising: Some Empirical Results," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(2), pages 263-283, Summer.
    14. Arturs Kalnins & Kyle J. Mayer, 2004. "Franchising, Ownership, and Experience: A Study of Pizza Restaurant Survival," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(12), pages 1716-1728, December.
    15. Patrick Rey & Joseph Stiglitz, 1995. "The Role of Exclusive Territories in Producers' Competition," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(3), pages 431-451, Autumn.
    16. Erin Anderson, 1985. "The Salesperson as Outside Agent or Employee: A Transaction Cost Analysis," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 4(3), pages 234-254.
    17. Anderson, Erin, 1988. "Transaction costs as determinants of opportunism in integrated and independent sales forces," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 247-264, April.
    18. Brickley, James A, 1999. "Incentive Conflicts and Contractual Restraints: Evidence from Franchising," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(2), pages 745-774, October.
    19. Pierre Azoulay & Scott Shane, 2001. "Entrepreneurs, Contracts, and the Failure of Young Firms," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(3), pages 337-358, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Francine Lafontaine & Margaret Slade, 2007. "Vertical Integration and Firm Boundaries: The Evidence," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(3), pages 629-685, September.
    2. Arturs Kalnins, 2017. "Pricing Variation Within Dual-Distribution Chains: The Different Implications of Externalities and Signaling for High- and Low-Quality Brands," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 63(1), pages 139-152, January.
    3. Salvatore Piccolo & Markus Reisinger, 2011. "Exclusive Territories and Manufacturers' Collusion," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 57(7), pages 1250-1266, July.
    4. Francine Lafontaine & Margaret E. Slade, 1998. "Incentive Contracting and the Franchise Decision," NBER Working Papers 6544, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. S. Verbieren & M. Cools & A. Van den Abbeele, 2008. "Franchising. A Literature Review on Management and Control Issues," Review of Business and Economic Literature, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB), Review of Business and Economic Literature, vol. 0(4), pages 398-443.
    6. Yue Chen & Sai-Ho Chung & Shu Guo, 2020. "Franchising contracts in fashion supply chain operations: models, practices, and real case study," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 291(1), pages 83-128, August.
    7. Josef Windsperger, 2003. "Complementarities and Substitutabilities in Franchise Contracting: Some Results from the German Franchise Sector," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 7(3), pages 291-313, September.
    8. Ackermann, Jeff, 2016. "The Effect of Franchising on Store Performance: Evidence from an Ownership Change," MPRA Paper 76185, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Jindal, Rupinder, 2011. "Reducing the Size of Internal Hierarchy: The Case of Multi-Unit Franchising," Journal of Retailing, Elsevier, vol. 87(4), pages 549-562.
    10. Josef Windsperger, 2013. "The governance of franchising networks," Chapters, in: Anna Grandori (ed.), Handbook of Economic Organization, chapter 27, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Scott Shane & Venkatesh Shankar & Ashwin Aravindakshan, 2006. "The Effects of New Franchisor Partnering Strategies on Franchise System Size," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(5), pages 773-787, May.
    12. Itai Ater & Oren Rigbi, 2015. "Price control and advertising in franchising chains," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(1), pages 148-158, January.
    13. Dildar Hussain & Marijana Sreckovic & Josef Windsperger, 2018. "An organizational capability perspective on multi-unit franchising," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 717-727, April.
    14. Dildar Hussain & Josef Windsperger, 2013. "A property rights view of multi-unit franchising," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 169-185, April.
    15. Gonzalez-Diaz, Manuel & Arrunada, Benito & Fernandez, Alberto, 2000. "Causes of subcontracting: evidence from panel data on construction firms," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 167-187, June.
    16. Francine Lafontaine & Kathryn L. Shaw, 2005. "Targeting Managerial Control: Evidence from Franchising," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 36(1), pages 131-150, Spring.
    17. Affuso, L., 2000. "Intra-Firm Retail Contracting: Survey Evidence from the UK'," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0022, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    18. Francine Lafontaine & Emmanuel Raynaud, 2002. "The Role of Residual Claims and Self-Enforcement in Franchise Contracting," NBER Working Papers 8868, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Hennessy, David A., 2003. "Property rights, productivity, and the nature of noncontractible actions in a franchise system," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 52(4), pages 443-468, December.
    20. William E. Gillis & Ellen McEwan & T. Russell Crook & Steven C. Michael, 2011. "Using Tournaments to Reduce Agency Problems: The Case of Franchising," Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, , vol. 35(3), pages 427-447, May.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormksc:v:23:y:2004:i:4:p:476-489. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/inforea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Matthew Walls (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/inforea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.