IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Exclusive Territories and Manufacturers’ Collusion

This paper highlights the rationale for exclusive territories in a model of repeated interaction between competing supply chains. We show that with observable contracts exclusive territories have two countervailing effects on manufacturers' incentives to sustain tacit collusion. First, granting local monopolies to retailers distributing a given brand softens inter- and intrabrand competition in a one-shot game. Hence, punishment profits are larger, thereby rendering deviation more profitable. Second, exclusive territories stifle deviation profits because retailers of competing brands can adjust their pricing decisions to the wholesale contract offered by a deviant manufacturer, whilst intrabrand competition prevents such `instantaneous reaction'. We show that the latter effect tends to dominate the former, whereby making exclusive territories a more suitable organizational mode to sustain upstream cooperation. These insights carry over when manufacturers voluntarily decide whether to disclose contracts and can change the distribution mode every period; moreover, they strengthen under imperfect intrabrand competition. Finally, we extend the model to allow for retailers' service investments. Here a novel effect emerges under exclusive territories: a retailer of the deviant manufacturer increases its service investment as a response to a lower wholesale price. This renders deviation more profitable, thereby softening the pro-collusive effect of exclusive territories.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.csef.it/WP/wp249.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy in its series CSEF Working Papers with number 249.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: 14 Apr 2010
Date of revision: 22 Feb 2011
Publication status: Published in Management Science, 2011, Vol. 57, 1250-1266
Handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:249
Contact details of provider: Postal:
I-80126 Napoli

Phone: +39 081 - 675372
Fax: +39 081 - 675372
Web page: http://www.csef.it/
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Wernerfelt, Birger, 1989. "Tacit collusion in differentiated cournot games," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 303-306.
  2. Pierre Azoulay & Scott Shane, 2001. "Entrepreneurs, Contracts, and the Failure of Young Firms," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 47(3), pages 337-358, March.
  3. Patton Culbertson, W. & Bradford, David, 1991. "The price of beer: Some evidence from interstate comparisons," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 275-289, June.
  4. Sass, Tim R & Saurman, David S, 1993. "Mandated Exclusive Territories and Economic Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis of the Malt-Beverage Industry," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(1), pages 153-77, April.
  5. Jullien, Bruno & Rey, Patrick, 2000. "Resale Price Maintenance and Collusion," CEPR Discussion Papers 2553, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Mathewson, Frank & Winter, Ralph, 1994. "Territorial Restrictions in Franchise Contracts," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 32(2), pages 181-92, April.
  7. Hans-Theo Normann, 2008. "Vertical Integration, Raising Rivals’ Costs and Upstream Collusion," Working Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods 2008_30, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods.
  8. Michael L. Katz., 1991. "Game-Playing Agents: Unobservable Contracts as Precommitments," Economics Working Papers 91-172, University of California at Berkeley.
  9. Patrick Rey & Joseph Stiglitz, 1994. "The Role of Exclusive Territories in Producers' Competition," NBER Working Papers 4618, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Maarten Pieter Schinkel & Jan Tuinstra & Jakob Rüggeberg, 2008. "Illinois Walls: how barring indirect purchaser suits facilitates collusion," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 39(3), pages 683-698.
  11. Raith, Michael, 1996. "A General Model of Information Sharing in Oligopoly," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 260-288, October.
  12. Anne T. Coughlan, 1985. "Competition and Cooperation in Marketing Channel Choice: Theory and Application," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 4(2), pages 110-129.
  13. Lucy White, 2007. "Foreclosure with Incomplete Information," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(2), pages 507-535, 06.
  14. Francine Lafontaine & Kathryn L. Shaw, 1999. "The Dynamics of Franchise Contracting: Evidence from Panel Data," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(5), pages 1041-1080, October.
  15. McAfee, R Preston & Schwartz, Marius, 1994. "Opportunism in Multilateral Vertical Contracting: Nondiscrimination, Exclusivity, and Uniformity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 210-30, March.
  16. Timothy W. McGuire & Richard Staelin, 1983. "An Industry Equilibrium Analysis of Downstream Vertical Integration," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 2(2), pages 161-191.
  17. Jappelli, Tullio & Pagano, Marco, 1991. "Information Sharing in Credit Markets," CEPR Discussion Papers 579, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Volker Nocke & Lucy White, 2003. "Do Vertical Mergers Facilitate Upstream Collusion?," PIER Working Paper Archive 03-033, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
  19. Toshihiro Matsumura, 2003. "Consumer-benefiting exclusive territories," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 36(4), pages 1007-1025, November.
  20. Shantanu Dutta & Mark Bergen & George John, 1994. "The Governance of Exclusive Territories When Dealers can Bootleg," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 13(1), pages 83-99.
  21. Ramarao Desiraju, 2004. "Costs and Benefits of Inducing Intrabrand Competition: The Role of Limited Liability," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(3), pages 429-450, March.
  22. Arturs Kalnins, 2004. "An Empirical Analysis of Territorial Encroachment Within Franchised and Company-Owned Branded Chains," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 23(4), pages 476-489, September.
  23. Alexander, Cindy R & Reiffen, David, 1995. "Vertical Contracts as Strategic Commitments: How Are They Enforced?," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(4), pages 623-49, Winter.
  24. G.F. Mathewson & R.A. Winter, 1984. "An Economic Theory of Vertical Restraints," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 15(1), pages 27-38, Spring.
  25. Francine Lafontaine, 1992. "Agency Theory and Franchising: Some Empirical Results," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 23(2), pages 263-283, Summer.
  26. Sass, Tim R & Saurman, David S, 1996. "Efficiency Effects of Exclusive Territories: Evidence from the Indiana Beer Market," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 34(3), pages 597-615, July.
  27. Andrea Fosfuri & Marco S. Giarratana, 2009. "Masters of War: Rivals' Product Innovation and New Advertising in Mature Product Markets," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(2), pages 181-191, February.
  28. Bonanno, Giacomo & Vickers, John, 1988. "Vertical Separation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 257-65, March.
  29. Ganesh Iyer, 1998. "Coordinating Channels Under Price and Nonprice Competition," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 17(4), pages 338-355.
  30. Mussa, Michael & Rosen, Sherwin, 1978. "Monopoly and product quality," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 301-317, August.
  31. Wei-yu Kevin Chiang & Dilip Chhajed & James D. Hess, 2003. "Direct Marketing, Indirect Profits: A Strategic Analysis of Dual-Channel Supply-Chain Design," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(1), pages 1-20, January.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sef:csefwp:249. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Lia Ambrosio)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.