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A Gender Analysis of Changing Livelihood Activities in the Rural Areas of Central Nepal

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  • Shanta Paudel Khatiwada

    (Institute of Mountain Hazard and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China)

  • Wei Deng

    (Institute of Mountain Hazard and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China)

  • Bikash Paudel

    (Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI-BIRD), Gairapatan-4, Pokhara 33700, Nepal)

  • Janak Raj Khatiwada

    (Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China)

  • Jifei Zhang

    (Institute of Mountain Hazard and Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China)

  • Jiangjun Wan

    (Department of Urban and Rural Planning, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 610041, China)

Abstract

Gender mainstreaming is a key for achieving inclusive economic growth, poverty reduction and equitable development. A gender disaggregated analysis of changing livelihood activities is, therefore, crucial for devising gender-sensitive policies and programs. This paper presents a gender disaggregated analysis to assess trend and influencing factors of switching livelihood to higher returning activities at the intra-household level in three villages in rural areas of central Nepal. The result showed that both men and women have changed their livelihood activities from subsistence to cash-earning activities in the last decade. However, the livelihood activities of men have changed considerably compared to women. Men are primarily attracted to out-migration and non-farm wage-based jobs whereas women to market-oriented commercial farming and rural enterprises. Individual as well as location-specific characteristics influence behavior switching to higher returning activities irrespective of gender, while the ethnicity of a household influences only women. Building human and financial capital through education and training along with strengthening access to credit and increasing connectivity through rural road and market centers would be pivotal for encouraging rural men and women to change traditional subsistence activities to higher returning undertakings, leading to equitable livelihood improvement in rural Nepal.

Suggested Citation

  • Shanta Paudel Khatiwada & Wei Deng & Bikash Paudel & Janak Raj Khatiwada & Jifei Zhang & Jiangjun Wan, 2018. "A Gender Analysis of Changing Livelihood Activities in the Rural Areas of Central Nepal," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 10(11), pages 1-24, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:10:y:2018:i:11:p:4034-:d:180348
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    4. Ifeoma Q. Anugwa & Agwu E. Agwu & Murari Suvedi & Suresh Babu, 0. "Gender-Specific Livelihood Strategies for Coping with Climate Change-Induced Food Insecurity in Southeast Nigeria," Food Security: The Science, Sociology and Economics of Food Production and Access to Food, Springer;The International Society for Plant Pathology, vol. 0, pages 1-20.
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