IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this article

Poverty, sustainability, and household livelihood strategies in Zagros, Iran

  • Soltani, Arezoo
  • Angelsen, Arild
  • Eid, Tron
  • Naieni, Mohammad Saeid Noori
  • Shamekhi, Taghi

The study addresses the two intertwined challenges of rural poverty and forest degradation in rural areas of Zagros, Iran. For a watershed in Zagros, a quantitative analysis based on the sustainable livelihood framework approach is used to identify household livelihood strategies, analyze livelihood choices, and investigate which strategies are most sustainable. The study revealed that most households (64%) follow a mixed strategy with a combination of forestry, animal husbandry, and subsistence agriculture. Households following a livelihood strategy that is highly dependent on forest extraction and livestock grazing (27%) are the poorest, whereas those that combine cultivation of commercial crops with non-farm work (9%) are able to earn higher incomes. The results also give some evidence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve: households that both adopt a mixed strategy and fall into the middle-income category are responsible for the highest overuse of forest resources and pasture. Since the end of 1980s, a number of households have shifted from a strategy based on forest and livestock to a strategy of mixed practices. An increasing share of households is adopting a strategy of non-farm and/or commercial practices, as well as outmigration to urban areas.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Ecological Economics.

Volume (Year): 79 (2012)
Issue (Month): C ()
Pages: 60-70

in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:79:y:2012:i:c:p:60-70
Contact details of provider: Web page:

No references listed on IDEAS
You can help add them by filling out this form.

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecolec:v:79:y:2012:i:c:p:60-70. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.