IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/wdevel/v45y2013icp239-251.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

A Matter of Time: Revisiting Growth Convergence in China

Author

Listed:
  • Andersson, Fredrik N.G.
  • Edgerton, David L.
  • Opper, Sonja

Abstract

China’s unbalanced growth strategy has seemingly fostered growing inter-regional growth disparities and there is little evidence of wealth trickling down from richer provinces to poorer provinces. Standard convergence tests, however, may be ill specified to detect underlying long-term growth trends in small samples due to the pronounced and frequent inter-regional short-term fluctuations. Our paper suggests a novel approach to distinguish between these long-term growth trends and short-term fluctuations. Based on provincial data from 1978 to 2009, our results indicate that China’s provinces only diverge over the short-term. Over the long term, provinces cluster into two converging growth clubs.

Suggested Citation

  • Andersson, Fredrik N.G. & Edgerton, David L. & Opper, Sonja, 2013. "A Matter of Time: Revisiting Growth Convergence in China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 239-251.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:45:y:2013:i:c:p:239-251
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.12.013
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X12003075
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.worlddev.2012.12.013?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Dennis Tao Yang, 1999. "Urban-Biased Policies and Rising Income Inequality in China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 306-310, May.
    3. Ramsey James B. & Lampart Camille, 1998. "The Decomposition of Economic Relationships by Time Scale Using Wavelets: Expenditure and Income," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-22, April.
    4. Yanrui Wu, 2016. "China's Capital Stock Series by Region and Sector," Frontiers of Economics in China, Higher Education Press, vol. 11(1), pages 156-172, March.
    5. Chen, Shaohua & Ravallion, Martin, 2008. "China is poorer than we thought, but no less successful in the fight against poverty," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4621, The World Bank.
    6. C. Cindy Fan, 1997. "Uneven development and beyond: regional development theory in post‐Mao China," International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 620-639, December.
    7. Zhang, Xiaobo & Yang, Jin & Wang, Shenglin, 2011. "China has reached the Lewis turning point," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 542-554.
    8. Robert J. Barro, 2013. "Inflation and Economic Growth," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 14(1), pages 121-144, May.
    9. Fleisher, Belton M. & Chen, Jian, 1997. "The Coast-Noncoast Income Gap, Productivity, and Regional Economic Policy in China," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 220-236, October.
    10. Dean Corbae & Sam Ouliaris & Peter C. B. Phillips, 2002. "Band Spectral Regression with Trending Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(3), pages 1067-1109, May.
    11. Fung Kwan, 2009. "Agricultural labour and the incidence of surplus labour: experience from China during reform," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(3), pages 341-361.
    12. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
    13. Westerlund, Joakim & Edgerton, David & Opper, Sonja, 2008. "Why is Chinese Regional Output Diverging?," Working Papers 2008:15, Lund University, Department of Economics, revised 03 Dec 2008.
    14. Nazrul Islam & Kazuhiko Yokota, 2008. "Lewis Growth Model and China's Industrialization," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 22(4), pages 359-396, December.
    15. Lucas, Robert E, Jr, 1993. "Making a Miracle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(2), pages 251-272, March.
    16. Valentina Meliciani & Franco Peracchi, 2009. "Convergence in per-capita GDP across European regions: a reappraisal," Studies in Empirical Economics, in: Giuseppe Arbia & Badi H. Baltagi (ed.), Spatial Econometrics, pages 203-222, Springer.
    17. Knight, John & Deng, Quheng & Li, Shi, 2011. "The puzzle of migrant labour shortage and rural labour surplus in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 585-600.
    18. Sylvie Démurger & Jeffrey D. Sachs & Wing Thye Woo & Shuming Bao & Gene Chang & Andrew Mellinger, 2002. "Geography, Economic Policy, and Regional Development in China," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 1(1), pages 146-197.
    19. Andersson, Fredrik N. G., 2011. "Band Spectrum Regressions using Wavelet Analysis," Working Papers 2011:22, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    20. Chiquiar, Daniel, 2005. "Why Mexico's regional income convergence broke down," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 257-275, June.
    21. Galor, Oded, 1996. "Convergence? Inferences from Theoretical Models," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(437), pages 1056-1069, July.
    22. StevenN. Durlauf & Andros Kourtellos & ChihMing Tan, 2008. "Are Any Growth Theories Robust?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(527), pages 329-346, March.
    23. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    24. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    25. Jian, Tianlun & Sachs, Jeffrey D. & Warner, Andrew M., 1996. "Trends in regional inequality in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-21.
    26. Ernesto Aguayo‐Tellez, 2006. "Income Divergence between Mexican States in the 1990s: The Role of Skill Premium," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(2), pages 255-277, June.
    27. Philippe Aghion & Patrick Bolton, 1997. "A Theory of Trickle-Down Growth and Development," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(2), pages 151-172.
    28. Chan, Kenneth S. & Dang, Vinh Q.T. & Lai, Jennifer T. & Yan, Isabel K.M., 2011. "Regional capital mobility in China: 1978–2006," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1506-1515.
    29. Abramovitz, Moses, 1986. "Catching Up, Forging Ahead, and Falling Behind," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 46(2), pages 385-406, June.
    30. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 71-102, October.
    31. Steven N. Durlauf & Andros Kourtellos & Chih Ming Tan, 2008. "Are Any Growth Theories Robust?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 118(527), pages 329-346, March.
    32. repec:kap:iaecre:v:16:y:2010:i:2:p:241-242 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Engle, Robert F, 1974. "Band Spectrum Regression," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 15(1), pages 1-11, February.
    34. Robert E. Hall & Charles I. Jones, 1999. "Why do Some Countries Produce So Much More Output Per Worker than Others?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(1), pages 83-116.
    35. Gençay, Ramazan & Gençay, Ramazan & Selçuk, Faruk & Whitcher, Brandon J., 2001. "An Introduction to Wavelets and Other Filtering Methods in Finance and Economics," Elsevier Monographs, Elsevier, edition 1, number 9780122796708.
    36. Zheng Song & Kjetil Storesletten & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 2011. "Growing Like China," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(1), pages 196-233, February.
    37. Bhajan Grewal & Abdullahi Ahmed, 2010. "China’s Western Region Development Strategy: Impact and Stocktaking Assessment," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 16(2), pages 241-242, May.
    38. Patrick M. Crowley, 2007. "A Guide To Wavelets For Economists," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(2), pages 207-267, April.
    39. Gary Jefferson & Thomas Rawski & Yifan Zhang, 2008. "Productivity growth and convergence across China's industrial economy," Journal of Chinese Economic and Business Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(2), pages 121-140.
    40. Alwyn Young, 2000. "The Razor's Edge: Distortions and Incremental Reform in the People's Republic of China," NBER Working Papers 7828, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    41. Gary H. Jefferson & Albert G. Z. Hu & Jian Su, 2006. "The Sources and Sustainability of China's Economic Growth," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 37(2), pages 1-60.
    42. Francis X. Diebold & Lutz Kilian & Marc Nerlove, 2006. "Time Series Analysis," PIER Working Paper Archive 06-019, Penn Institute for Economic Research, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania.
      • Diebold, F.X. & Kilian, L. & Nerlove, Marc, 2006. "Time Series Analysis," Working Papers 28556, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
    43. Grossman, Gene M. & Helpman, Elhanan, 1991. "Trade, knowledge spillovers, and growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 35(2-3), pages 517-526, April.
    44. Phillips, P C B, 1991. "Error Correction and Long-Run Equilibrium in Continuous Time," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(4), pages 967-980, July.
    45. Nazrul Islam, 2003. "What have We Learnt from the Convergence Debate?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(3), pages 309-362, July.
    46. Dowrick, Steve & Nguyen, Duc-Tho, 1989. "OECD Comparative Economic Growth 1950-85: Catch-Up and Convergence," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1010-1030, December.
    47. Lant Pritchett, 1997. "Divergence, Big Time," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 3-17, Summer.
    48. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-1085, December.
    49. Nee, Victor & Opper, Sonja, 2012. "Capitalism from Below: Markets and Institutional Change in China," Economics Books, Harvard University Press, number 9780674050204, Spring.
    50. Francisco Goerlich & Matilde Mas, 2002. "Intertemporal and interprovincial variations in income inequality: Spain, 1973-1991," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(9), pages 1005-1015.
    51. Fleisher, Belton M. & Hu, Yifan & Li, Haizheng & Kim, Seonghoon, 2011. "Economic transition, higher education and worker productivity in China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 86-94, January.
    52. Pratap S. Birthal & Harvinder Singh & Shiv Kumar, 2011. "Agriculture, economic growth and regional disparities in India," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(1), pages 119-131, January.
    53. Shahid Yusuf & Kaoru Nabeshima & Dwight H. Perkins, 2005. "Under New Ownership : Privatizing China's State-Owned Enterprises," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 7399, December.
    54. Alwyn Young, 2000. "The Razor's Edge: Distortions and Incremental Reform in the People's Republic of China," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(4), pages 1091-1135.
    55. Zind, Richard G., 1991. "Income convergence and divergence within and between LDC groups," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 719-727, June.
    56. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. Growth Convergence in China
      by UDADISI in UDADISI on 2013-02-09 08:58:00

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Sai Ding & Alessandra Guariglia & Richard Harris, 2016. "The determinants of productivity in Chinese large and medium-sized industrial firms, 1998–2007," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 45(2), pages 131-155, April.
    2. Peng Bin, 2016. "Dynamic Development of Regional Disparity in Mainland China: An Experimental Study Based on a Multidimensional Index," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 8(12), pages 1-28, December.
    3. Lemoine, Françoise & Poncet, Sandra & Ünal, Deniz, 2015. "Spatial rebalancing and industrial convergence in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 39-63.
    4. Andersson , Fredrik N. G. & Ljungberg, Jonas, 2014. "Grain Market Integration in the Baltic Sea Region in the 19th Century," Working Papers 2014:3, Lund University, Department of Economics.
    5. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Shafiullah, Muhammad & Khalid, Usman & Song, Malin, 2020. "A nonparametric analysis of energy environmental Kuznets Curve in Chinese Provinces," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(C).
    6. Nusrate Aziz & Usman Khalid, 2019. "Armed Conflict, Military Expenses and FDI Inflow to Developing Countries," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(2), pages 238-251, February.
    7. Usman Khalid, 2016. "Catch-up in Institutional Quality: An Empirical Assessment," Discussion Papers 2016-04, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
    8. Usman Khalid & Olivier Habimana, 2021. "Military Spending and Economic Growth in Turkey: A Wavelet Approach," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(3), pages 362-376, April.
    9. Jeffrey Zax, 2016. "Provincial valuations of human capital in urban China, inter-regional inequality and the implicit value of a Guangdong hukou," ERSA conference papers ersa16p693, European Regional Science Association.
    10. Anping Chen & Nicolaas Groenewold, 2016. "Output Shocks In China: Do The Distributional Effects Depend On The Regional Source?," Economics Discussion / Working Papers 16-20, The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
    11. Yang, Jun & Zhang, Tengfei & Sheng, Pengfei & Shackman, Joshua D., 2016. "Carbon dioxide emissions and interregional economic convergence in China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 52(PB), pages 672-680.
    12. Andersson, Fredrik N.G. & Opper, Sonja & Khalid, Usman, 2018. "Are capitalists green? Firm ownership and provincial CO2 emissions in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 349-359.
    13. Fredrik N. G. Andersson & Katarzyna Burzynska & Sonja Opper, 2016. "Lending for growth? A Granger causality analysis of China’s finance–growth nexus," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 51(3), pages 897-920, November.
    14. Chen, Anping & Groenewold, Nicolaas, 2018. "The regional effects of macroeconomic shocks in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 139-154.
    15. Bian, Zhicun & Ma, Jun & Ni, Jinlan & Stewart, Shamar, 2020. "Synchronization of regional growth dynamics in China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    16. Sun, ZhiQiang & Wang, Qizhen, 2021. "The asymmetric effect of natural resource abundance on economic growth and environmental pollution: Evidence from resource-rich economy," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    17. Shaohua Zhang & Tzu-Pu Chang & Li-Chuan Liao, 2020. "A Dual Challenge in China’s Sustainable Total Factor Productivity Growth," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(13), pages 1-17, July.
    18. Li, Qing & Vo, Long Hai & Wu, Yanrui, 2019. "Intangible capital distribution in China," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 1-1.
    19. Butkus Mindaugas & Matuzevičiūtė Kristina, 2016. "Evaluation of Eu Cohesion Policy Impact on Regional Convergence: Do Culture Differences Matter?," Economics and Culture, Sciendo, vol. 13(1), pages 41-52, June.
    20. Françoise Lemoine & Grégoire Mayo & Sandra Poncet & Deniz Ünal, 2014. "The Geographic Pattern of China's Growth and Convergence within Industry," Working Papers 2014-04, CEPII research center.
    21. Zheng, Lucy & Batuo, Michael Enowbi & Shepherd, David, 2017. "The Impact of Regional and Institutional Factors on Labor Productive Performance—Evidence from the Township and Village Enterprise Sector in China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 591-598.
    22. Federico Frattini & Francesco Nicolli & Giorgio Prodi, 2014. "Technological capabilities and growth: A study of economic convergence among Chinese prefectures," SEEDS Working Papers 2914, SEEDS, Sustainability Environmental Economics and Dynamics Studies, revised Dec 2014.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mark Rogers, 2003. "A Survey of Economic Growth," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 79(244), pages 112-135, March.
    2. Adriana Di Liberto, 2007. "Convergence and Divergence in Neoclassical Growth Models with Human Capital," Economia politica, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 289-322.
    3. Durlauf, Steven N. & Quah, Danny T., 1999. "The new empirics of economic growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 235-308, Elsevier.
    4. Peter Mulder & Henri Groot, 2007. "Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 36(1), pages 85-112, January.
    5. Magrini, Stefano, 1999. "The evolution of income disparities among the regions of the European Union," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 257-281, March.
    6. Qinghua Zhang & Heng-fu Zou, 2012. "Regional Inequality in Contemporary China," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 13(1), pages 113-137, May.
    7. Jones, Derek C. & Li, Cheng & Owen, Ann L., 2003. "Growth and regional inequality in China during the reform era," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 186-200.
    8. Srinivas, Goli, 2014. "Demographic convergence and its linkage with health inequalities in India," MPRA Paper 79823, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 05 Dec 2014.
    9. G Cameron, 1996. "Innovation and Economic Growth," CEP Discussion Papers dp0277, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    10. Taylor, Alan M., 1999. "Sources of convergence in the late nineteenth century," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(9), pages 1621-1645, October.
    11. Jones, C.I., 2016. "The Facts of Economic Growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 3-69, Elsevier.
    12. Eftychia Tsanana & Constantinos Katrakilidis, 2014. "Do Balkan economies catch up with EU? New evidence from panel unit root analysis," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 41(4), pages 641-662, November.
    13. Peter Mulder & Raymond J.G.M. Florax & Henri L.F. de Groot, 2011. "A Spatial Perspective on Global Energy Productivity Trends," Chapters, in: Raymond J.G.M. Florax & Henri L.F. de Groot & Peter Mulder (ed.), Improving Energy Efficiency through Technology, chapter 2, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    14. Iancu, Aurel, 2007. "The Question of Economic Convergence - first part -," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 4(3), pages 5-18, September.
    15. Miron, Dumitru & Dima, Alina & Paun, Cristian, 2009. "A model for assessing Romania's real convergence based on distances and clusters methods," MPRA Paper 31410, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Iancu, Aurel, 2009. "Real Economic Convergence," Working Papers of National Institute for Economic Research 090104, Institutul National de Cercetari Economice (INCE).
    17. Bayraktar-Sağlam, Bahar & Yetkiner, Hakan, 2014. "A Romerian contribution to the empirics of economic growth," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 257-272.
    18. Peter Mulder & Henri Groot, 2007. "Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 36(1), pages 85-112, January.
    19. Sajjad Barkhordari & Maryam Fattahi & Naser Ali Azimi, 2019. "The Impact of Knowledge-Based Economy on Growth Performance: Evidence from MENA Countries," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 10(3), pages 1168-1182, September.
    20. ?gel de la Fuente, "undated". "Convergence Across Countries And Regions: Theory And Empirics," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 447.00, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    regional convergence; developing countries; growth; China;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology
    • O33 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Technological Change: Choices and Consequences; Diffusion Processes
    • O41 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - One, Two, and Multisector Growth Models
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:45:y:2013:i:c:p:239-251. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.