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Local and Personal Networks in Employment and the Development of Labor Markets: Evidence from the Cut Flower Industry in Ethiopia


  • Mano, Yukichi
  • Yamano, Takashi
  • Suzuki, Aya
  • Matsumoto, Tomoya


We examine the roles of local and personal networks in the employment process and the emergence and development of the labor market in Ethiopia’s growing cut flower industry. Using primary survey data of 320 workers randomly sampled from all 64 farms, we find that workers who were recruited informally using the social ties were paid less than the formally-recruited workers at hiring. However, these workers quickly increased their productivity, and the effect of social ties on wages disappeared over time. Further, we find that the development of labor market for this newly-emerged industry took place particularly within the industrial cluster.

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  • Mano, Yukichi & Yamano, Takashi & Suzuki, Aya & Matsumoto, Tomoya, 2011. "Local and Personal Networks in Employment and the Development of Labor Markets: Evidence from the Cut Flower Industry in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1760-1770.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:39:y:2011:i:10:p:1760-1770
    DOI: 10.1016/j.worlddev.2011.04.024

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    2. Maertens, Miet & Swinnen, Johan, 2015. "Agricultural trade and development: A value chain perspective," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2015-04, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    3. Goedele Van den Broeck & Kaat Van Hoyweghen & Miet Maertens, 2016. "Employment Conditions in the Senegalese Horticultural Export Industry: A Worker Perspective," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 34(2), pages 301-319, March.
    4. Girum Abebe & Tetsushi Sonobe, 2012. "Management Practices, Self-Selection into Management Training Participation, and Training Effects in the Garment Industry in Ethiopia," GRIPS Discussion Papers 11-23, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
    5. Mano, Yukichi & Suzuki, Aya, 2013. "Industrial Development through Takeovers and Exits: the Case of the Cut Flower Exporters in Ethiopia," Discussion Papers 2013-05, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.
    6. John C. Beghin & Miet Maertens & Johan Swinnen, 2017. "Nontariff Measures and Standards in Trade and Global Value Chains," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 2, pages 13-38 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    7. Mano, Yukichi & Suzuki, Aya, 2013. "Measuring Agglomeration Economies: The Case of the Ethiopian Cut Flower Industry," Discussion Papers 2013-04, Graduate School of Economics, Hitotsubashi University.
    8. Florian Schaefer & Girum Abebe, 2015. "The case for industrial policy and its application in the Ethiopian cut flower sector," Working Papers 012, Ethiopian Development Research Institute.
    9. KUEPIE Mathias & TENIKUE Michel & WALTHER Olivier, 2014. "Small businesses performance in West African border regions: Do social networks pay off?," LISER Working Paper Series 2014-06, LISER.
    10. Songsermsawas, Tisorn & Baylis, Kathy & Chhatre, Ashwini & Michelson, Hope, 2016. "Can Peers Improve Agricultural Revenue?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 163-178.
    11. Mulu Gebreeyesus, 2015. "Firm adoption of international standards: evidence from the Ethiopian floriculture sector," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 46(S1), pages 139-155, November.
    12. Szirmai A. & Gebreeyesus M. & Guadagno F. & Verspagen B., 2013. "Promoting productive employment in Sub‐Saharan Africa : a review of the literature," MERIT Working Papers 062, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    13. Mengistu Assefa Wendimu & Peter Gibbon, 2014. "Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia: Wage premiums and segmentation," IFRO Working Paper 2014/06, University of Copenhagen, Department of Food and Resource Economics.
    14. Olivier Walther, 2015. "Social Network Analysis and informal trade," Working Papers 4, University of Southern Denmark, Centre for Border Region Studies.
    15. Johan Swinnen, 2014. "Global Agricultural Value Chains, Standards, and Development," RSCAS Working Papers 2014/30, European University Institute.
    16. Herforth, Nico & Theuvsen, Ludwig & Vásquez, Wilson & Wollni, Meike, 2015. "Understanding participation in modern supply chains under a social network perspective – evidence from blackberry farmers in the Ecuadorian Andes," Discussion Papers 197709, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, GlobalFood, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development.
    17. Caria, Antonia Stefano & Hassen, Ibrahim Worku, 2013. "The formation of job referral networks: Experimental evidence from ubran Ethiopia:," IFPRI discussion papers 1282, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    18. Staelens, Lotte & Louche, Céline & D’Haese, Marijke, 2014. "Understanding job satisfaction in a labor intensive sector: Empirical evidence from the Ethiopian cut flower industry," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182815, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    19. SUZUKI, Aya & MANO, Yukichi & ABEBE, Girum, 2017. "Earnings, Savings, and Job Satisfaction in a Labor-intensive Export Sector: Evidence from the Cut Flower Industry in Ethiopia," Discussion paper series HIAS-E-55, Hitotsubashi Institute for Advanced Study, Hitotsubashi University.
    20. Deguilhem, Thibaud & Berrou, Jean-Philippe & Combarnous, François, 2017. "Using your ties to get a worse job? The differential effects of social networks on quality of employment: Evidence from Colombia," MPRA Paper 78628, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    labor; market; cluster; cut flower; Ethiopia; Africa;


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