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Pay gap by gender in the tourism industry of Brazil


  • Ferreira Freire Guimarães, Carla Regina
  • Silva, Joaquim Ramos


This study aims to analyse wage gaps by gender in the Brazilian tourism sector. This involves investigating wage differences in order to identify the variables that determine the wages paid for these activities. We sourced our statistics from the micro-data collected by the National Household Sample Survey (PNAD), released by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) in 2012. We deployed the decomposition of Oaxaca (1973) and Blinder (1973) to measure the differences in wages within the sector. Through this decomposition, we conclude that gender pay discrimination exists in tourism in Brazil, demonstrating that women are less valued than men even when sharing the same job characteristics. As a result, we make policy recommendations and put forward suggestions for further research on the subject.

Suggested Citation

  • Ferreira Freire Guimarães, Carla Regina & Silva, Joaquim Ramos, 2016. "Pay gap by gender in the tourism industry of Brazil," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 440-450.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:touman:v:52:y:2016:i:c:p:440-450
    DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2015.07.003

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Pastore, Francesco & Webster, Allan & Hope, Kevin, 2020. "Assessing the Role of Women in Tourism Related Sectors in the Caribbean," IZA Discussion Papers 13486, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Azzurra Rinaldi & Irene Salerno, 0. "The tourism gender gap and its potential impact on the development of the emerging countries," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-13.
    3. Carvalho, Inês & Costa, Carlos & Lykke, Nina & Torres, Anália, 2019. "Beyond the glass ceiling: Gendering tourism management," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 79-91.
    4. María Jesús Carrasco-Santos & Carmen Cristófol Rodríguez & Eva Royo Rodríguez, 2020. "Why Is the Spanish Hotel Trade Lagging So Far Behind in Gender Equality? A Sustainability Question," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(11), pages 1-20, May.
    5. Joaquim Ramos Silva & Carla Regina Ferreira Freire Guimarães, 2017. "Wage differentials in Brazil: Tourism vs. other service sectors," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(1), pages 1319606-131, January.
    6. Haroon Ur Rashid Khan & Anwar Khan & Khalid Zaman & Agha Amad Nabi & Sanil S. Hishan & Talat Islam, 2017. "Gender discrimination in education, health, and labour market: a voice for equality," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 51(5), pages 2245-2266, September.
    7. Banerjee, Snehasish & Chua, Alton Y.K., 2020. "How alluring is the online profile of tour guides?," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 81(C).
    8. Francisca Rosa Álamo-Vera & Lidia Hernández-López & José Luis Ballesteros-Rodríguez & Petra De Saá-Pérez, 2020. "Competence Development and Employability Expectations: A Gender Perspective of Mobility Programmes in Higher Education," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(3), pages 1-15, September.

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    Brazil; Wage gaps; Gender; Tourism activities;


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