IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Assessing the role of women in tourism related sectors in the Caribbean


  • Pastore, Francesco
  • Webster, Allan
  • Hope, Kevin


This study contributes to the rapidly growing literature on women in tourism. It focuses on a group of 13 Caribbean countries. The study analyses the impact of women in apical positions within firms (top manager or owner) on firm performance – productivity, profitability and female employment. For this both a decomposition model and the Inverse Probability Weighted Regression Adjustment (IPWRA) estimator are used. The analysis finds that opportunities for women in these positions in the Caribbean are constrained to less productive and profitable firms, as elsewhere. However, those firms with females at the top employ more women, particularly in management roles.

Suggested Citation

  • Pastore, Francesco & Webster, Allan & Hope, Kevin, 2020. "Assessing the role of women in tourism related sectors in the Caribbean," GLO Discussion Paper Series 599, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:599

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Matias D. Cattaneo & David M. Drukker & Ashley D. Holland, 2013. "Estimation of multivalued treatment effects under conditional independence," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 13(3), pages 407-450, September.
    2. Kevin Campbell & Antonio Mínguez-Vera, 2008. "Gender Diversity in the Boardroom and Firm Financial Performance," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 83(3), pages 435-451, December.
    3. Cattaneo, Matias D., 2010. "Efficient semiparametric estimation of multi-valued treatment effects under ignorability," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 155(2), pages 138-154, April.
    4. Mohammad Amin & Asif Islam, 2015. "Does Mandating Nondiscrimination in Hiring Practices Influence Women's Employment? Evidence Using Firm-Level Data," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 28-60, October.
    5. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
    6. Matias D. Cattaneo, 2010. "multi-valued treatment effects," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics,, Palgrave Macmillan.
    7. Duffy, Lauren N. & Kline, Carol S. & Mowatt, Rasul A. & Chancellor, H. Charles, 2015. "Women in tourism: Shifting gender ideology in the DR," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 72-86.
    8. Wiji Arulampalam & Alison L. Booth & Mark L. Bryan, 2007. "Is There a Glass Ceiling over Europe? Exploring the Gender Pay Gap across the Wage Distribution," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 60(2), pages 163-186, January.
    9. Adams, Renée B. & Ferreira, Daniel, 2009. "Women in the boardroom and their impact on governance and performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(2), pages 291-309, November.
    10. Elena Bardasi & Shwetlena Sabarwal & Katherine Terrell, 2011. "How do female entrepreneurs perform? Evidence from three developing regions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 417-441, November.
    11. Carvalho, Inês & Costa, Carlos & Lykke, Nina & Torres, Anália, 2019. "Beyond the glass ceiling: Gendering tourism management," Annals of Tourism Research, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 79-91.
    12. David A. Carter & Betty J. Simkins & W. Gary Simpson, 2003. "Corporate Governance, Board Diversity, and Firm Value," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 38(1), pages 33-53, February.
    13. Ferreira Freire Guimarães, Carla Regina & Silva, Joaquim Ramos, 2016. "Pay gap by gender in the tourism industry of Brazil," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 440-450.
    14. Mohammad Amin & Asif Islam, 2014. "Are There More Female Managers in the Retail Sector? Evidence from Survey Data in Developing Countries," Journal of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(2), pages 213-228, November.
    15. Kenneth R. Ahern & Amy K. Dittmar, 2012. "The Changing of the Boards: The Impact on Firm Valuation of Mandated Female Board Representation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(1), pages 137-197.
    16. Davis, Jennifer & Kang, Alice & Vincent, Jeffrey & Whittington, Dale, 2001. "How Important is Improved Water Infrastructure to Microenterprises? Evidence from Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1753-1767, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Jackman, Mahalia & Lorde, Kishmar, 2021. "Gaps in the (paid) work hours of male and female heads of households: empirical evidence from Barbados," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 42(7), pages 1321-1337.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Marisetty, Vijaya Bhaskar & Prasad, Salu, 2022. "On the side effects of mandatory gender diversity laws in corporate boards," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    2. Katie Meara & Francesco Pastore & Allan Webster, 2020. "The gender pay gap in the USA: a matching study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 271-305, January.
    3. Benkraiem, Ramzi & Boubaker, Sabri & Brinette, Souad & Khemiri, Sabrina, 2021. "Board feminization and innovation through corporate venture capital investments: The moderating effects of independence and management skills," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 163(C).
    4. Katia Furlotti & Tatiana Mazza & Veronica Tibiletti & Silvia Triani, 2019. "Women in top positions on boards of directors: Gender policies disclosed in Italian sustainability reporting," Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 26(1), pages 57-70, January.
    5. Nguyen, Tuan & Nguyen, An & Nguyen, Mau & Truong, Thuyen, 2021. "Is national governance quality a key moderator of the boardroom gender diversity–firm performance relationship? International evidence from a multi-hierarchical analysis," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 370-390.
    6. Hiroaki Niikura & Miki Seko, 2020. "The effect of inside and outside female directors on firm performance: comparison of the First section, Second section, Mothers, and Jasdaq in the Tokyo Stock Exchange Market," International Journal of Economic Policy Studies, Springer, vol. 14(1), pages 123-166, February.
    7. Emanuela Ghignoni & Marilena Giannetti & Vincenzo Salvucci, 2022. "The double "discrimination" of foreign women: A matching comparisons approach," Working Papers in Public Economics 225, University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Economics and Law.
    8. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-054 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Nermeen Shehata & Ahmed Salhin & Moataz El-Helaly, 2017. "Board diversity and firm performance: evidence from the U.K. SMEs," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(48), pages 4817-4832, October.
    10. Sultan Sikandar Mirza & Muhammad Ansar Majeed & Tanveer Ahsan, 2020. "Board gender diversity, competitive pressure and investment efficiency in Chinese private firms," Post-Print hal-02956320, HAL.
    11. Geeta Duppati & Narendar V. Rao & Neha Matlani & Frank Scrimgeour & Debasis Patnaik, 2020. "Gender diversity and firm performance: evidence from India and Singapore," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(14), pages 1553-1565, March.
    12. Aida Sijamic Wahid, 2019. "The Effects and the Mechanisms of Board Gender Diversity: Evidence from Financial Manipulation," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 159(3), pages 705-725, October.
    13. Matti Keloharju & Samuli Knüpfer & Joacim Tåg, 2022. "What prevents women from reaching the top?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 51(3), pages 711-738, September.
    14. Daunfeldt, Sven-Olov & Rudholm, Niklas, 2012. "Does Gender Diversity in the Boardroom Improve Firm Performance?," HUI Working Papers 60, HUI Research.
    15. Adeel Mustafa & Abubakr Saeed & Muhammad Awais & Shahab Aziz, 2020. "Board-Gender Diversity, Family Ownership, and Dividend Announcement: Evidence from Asian Emerging Economies," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 13(4), pages 1-20, March.
    16. Mauro Romano & Alessandro Cirillo & Christian Favino & Antonio Netti, 2020. "ESG (Environmental, Social and Governance) Performance and Board Gender Diversity: The Moderating Role of CEO Duality," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(21), pages 1-16, November.
    17. Syed Shafqat Mukarram & Abubakr Saeed & Shawkat Hammoudeh & Muhammad Mustafa Raziq, 2018. "Women on Indian boards and market performance: a role-congruity theory perspective," Asian Business & Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 17(1), pages 4-36, February.
    18. Nazliben, Kamil Korhan & Renneboog, Luc & Uduwalage, Emil, 2022. "Social Diversity on Corporate Boards in a Country Torn by Civil War," Discussion Paper 2022-001, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    19. Andre Havrylyshyn & Donald J. Schepker & Anthony J. Nyberg, 2023. "In the Club? How Categorization and Contact Impact the Board Gender Diversity-Firm Performance Relationship," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 184(2), pages 353-374, May.
    20. Ying Li Compton & Sok-Hyon Kang & Zinan Zhu, 2019. "Gender Stereotyping by Location, Female Director Appointments and Financial Performance," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 160(2), pages 445-462, December.
    21. Paul B. McGuinness & João Paulo Vieito & Mingzhu Wang, 2020. "Proactive government intervention, board gender balance, and stakeholder engagement in China and Europe," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 719-762, September.

    More about this item


    gender differences; tourism; Propensity score matching; IPWRA; Caribbean;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • L83 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Sports; Gambling; Restaurants; Recreation; Tourism
    • Z32 - Other Special Topics - - Tourism Economics - - - Tourism and Development

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:599. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.