IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/streco/v19y2008i2p152-172.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

International R&D spillovers and manufacturing productivity: A panel data analysis

Author

Listed:
  • López-Pueyo, Carmen
  • Barcenilla-Visús, Sara
  • Sanaú, Jaime

Abstract

This paper analyses the long-run influence of domestic and foreign technological capital on countries' manufacturing TFP. The calculation of the TFP has been carried out by applying specific unit value ratios, adjusting the value added of each individual (sector-country) in order to take into account the unsynchronized business cycles across countries, using hedonic price indices and estimating labour shares. To measure the technological externalities, we have applied alternative weightings with the aim of considering the influence of the country of origin of the externalities and of the intensity of the relationships maintained. Another aspect to highlight is the application of estimation procedures and tests of unit roots and of cointegration that are adequate for the panel of data and that permit the presentation of non-biased estimations. Finally, empirical evidence is presented about the different patterns of spillovers of the industrial sectors grouped according to their technological intensities.

Suggested Citation

  • López-Pueyo, Carmen & Barcenilla-Visús, Sara & Sanaú, Jaime, 2008. "International R&D spillovers and manufacturing productivity: A panel data analysis," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 152-172, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:streco:v:19:y:2008:i:2:p:152-172
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0954-349X(08)00002-7
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-1037, October.
    2. Keller, Wolfgang, 2000. "Do Trade Patterns and Technology Flows Affect Productivity Growth?," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 14(1), pages 17-47, January.
    3. Howitt, Peter & Mayer-Foulkes, David, 2005. "R&D, Implementation, and Stagnation: A Schumpeterian Theory of Convergence Clubs," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(1), pages 147-177, February.
    4. Mr. David T. Coe & Mr. Willy A Hoffmaister, 1999. "Are There International R&D Spillovers Among Randomly Matched Trade Partners? A Response to Keller," IMF Working Papers 1999/018, International Monetary Fund.
    5. E. S. Phelps, 1966. "Models of Technical Progress and the Golden Rule of Research," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(2), pages 133-145.
    6. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Productivity, R&D, and the Data Constraint," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 347-374, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. William D. Nordhaus, 2000. "Alternative Methods for Measuring Productivity Growth," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1282, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
    8. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    9. Coe, David T. & Helpman, Elhanan, 1995. "International R&D spillovers," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 859-887, May.
    10. Edmond, Chris, 2001. "Some Panel Cointegration Models of International R&D Spillovers," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 241-260, April.
    11. Wolfgang Keller, 2002. "Geographic Localization of International Technology Diffusion," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 120-142, March.
    12. Hodrick, Robert J & Prescott, Edward C, 1997. "Postwar U.S. Business Cycles: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 29(1), pages 1-16, February.
    13. Keller, Wolfgang, 1998. "Are international R&D spillovers trade-related?: Analyzing spillovers among randomly matched trade partners," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(8), pages 1469-1481, September.
    14. Wolfgang Keller & Stephen R. Yeaple, 2009. "Multinational Enterprises, International Trade, and Productivity Growth: Firm-Level Evidence from the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(4), pages 821-831, November.
    15. T. W. Swan, 1956. "ECONOMIC GROWTH and CAPITAL ACCUMULATION," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 32(2), pages 334-361, November.
    16. Stefano Scarpetta & Andrea Bassanini & Dirk Pilat & Paul Schreyer, 2000. "Economic Growth in the OECD Area: Recent Trends at the Aggregate and Sectoral Level," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 248, OECD Publishing.
    17. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
    18. Wolfgang Keller, 2004. "International Technology Diffusion," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 752-782, September.
    19. N. Kaldor & J. A. Mirrlees, 1971. "A New Model of Economic Growth," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: F. H. Hahn (ed.), Readings in the Theory of Growth, chapter 13, pages 165-183, Palgrave Macmillan.
    20. Aghion, Philippe & Howitt, Peter, 1992. "A Model of Growth through Creative Destruction," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(2), pages 323-351, March.
    21. Christoph Meister & Bart Verspagen & Guntram B. Wolff, 2006. "European Productivity Gaps: Is R&D the Solution?," Chapters, in: Susanne Mundschenk & Michael H. Stierle & Ulrike Stierle-von Schütz & Iulia Traistaru-Siedschlag (ed.), Competitiveness and Growth in Europe, chapter 8, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    22. Kao, Chihwa, 1999. "Spurious regression and residual-based tests for cointegration in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 90(1), pages 1-44, May.
    23. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Interindustry Technology Flows and Productivity Growth: A Reexamination," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 241-250, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    24. Wolfgang Keller, 1997. "Trade Patterns, Technology Flows, and Productivity Growth," International Trade 9702001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    25. Prucha, Ingmar R, 1995. "On the Econometric Estimation of a Constant Rate of Depreciation," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 20(2), pages 299-302.
    26. Frederic Scherer, 2003. "Technology Flows Matrix Estimation Revisited," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 327-358.
    27. Jorge Crespo & Carmela Martín & Francisco J. Velázquez, 2004. "International technology spillovers from trade: the importance of the technological gap," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 28(3), pages 515-533, September.
    28. Jora R. Minasian, 1962. "The Economics of Research and Development," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 93-142, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    29. Lumenga-Neso, Olivier & Olarreaga, Marcelo & Schiff, Maurice, 2005. "On `indirect' trade-related R&D spillovers," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1785-1798, October.
    30. Mombert Hoppe, 2005. "Technology Transfer Through Trade," Working Papers 2005.19, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    31. Charles R. Hulten & Edwin R. Dean & Michael J. Harper, 2001. "New Developments in Productivity Analysis," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number hult01-1, June.
    32. Coe, David T & Helpman, Elhanan & Hoffmaister, Alexander W, 1997. "North-South R&D Spillovers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(440), pages 134-149, January.
    33. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "Issues in Assessing the Contribution of Research and Development to Productivity Growth," NBER Chapters, in: R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence, pages 17-45, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    34. repec:adr:anecst:y:1998:i:49-50:p:02 is not listed on IDEAS
    35. Philippe Aghion & Peter Howitt, 1999. "On the Macroeconomic Effects of Major Technological Change," Nordic Journal of Political Economy, Nordic Journal of Political Economy, vol. 25, pages 15-32.
    36. K. J. Arrow, 1971. "The Economic Implications of Learning by Doing," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: F. H. Hahn (ed.), Readings in the Theory of Growth, chapter 11, pages 131-149, Palgrave Macmillan.
    37. Joonkyung Ha & Peter Howitt, 2007. "Accounting for Trends in Productivity and R&D: A Schumpeterian Critique of Semi-Endogenous Growth Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 39(4), pages 733-774, June.
    38. Dominique Guellec & Bruno Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, 2004. "From R&D to Productivity Growth: Do the Institutional Settings and the Source of Funds of R&D Matter?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 66(3), pages 353-378, July.
    39. F. Funk, Mark, 2001. "International R&D Spillovers and Convergence Among OECD Countries," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 16, pages 48-65.
    40. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    41. Dirk Frantzen, 2000. "R&D, Human Capital and International Technology Spillovers: A Cross‐country Analysis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 102(1), pages 57-75, March.
    42. Harrigan, James, 1999. "Estimation of cross-country differences in industry production functions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 267-293, April.
    43. Frantzen, Dirk, 2000. "Innovation, International Technological Diffusion and the Changing Influence of R&D on Productivity," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 24(2), pages 193-210, March.
    44. Griliches, Zvi, 1998. "R&D and Productivity," National Bureau of Economic Research Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226308869.
    45. Robert Wieser, 2005. "Research And Development Productivity And Spillovers: Empirical Evidence At The Firm Level," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 587-621, September.
    46. Bin Xu & Jianmao Wang, 1999. "Capital Goods Trade and R&D Spillovers in the OECD," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 32(5), pages 1258-1274, November.
    47. Jorge Crespo & Carmela Martin & Francisco Javier Velázquez, 2002. "International technology diffusion through imports and its impact on economic growth," European Economy Group Working Papers 12, European Economy Group.
    48. D. W. Jorgenson & Z. Griliches, 1967. "The Explanation of Productivity Change," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 34(3), pages 249-283.
    49. Henrik Braconier & Fredrik Sjöholm, 1998. "National and international spillovers from R&D: Comparing a neoclassical and an endogenous growth approach," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 134(4), pages 638-663, December.
    50. Jaffe, Adam B, 1986. "Technological Opportunity and Spillovers of R&D: Evidence from Firms' Patents, Profits, and Market Value," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 984-1001, December.
    51. Lichtenberg, Frank R. & Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno v., 1998. "International R&D spillovers: A comment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(8), pages 1483-1491, September.
    52. Zvi Griliches, 1998. "R&D and Productivity: The Econometric Evidence," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gril98-1, June.
    53. Keller, Wolfgang, 2002. "Trade and the Transmission of Technology," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 5-24, March.
    54. Pohjola, Matti (ed.), 2001. "Information Technology, Productivity, and Economic Growth: International Evidence and Implications for Economic Development," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199243983.
    55. del Barrio-Castro, Tomas & Lopez-Bazo, Enrique & Serrano-Domingo, Guadalupe, 2002. "New evidence on international R&D spillovers, human capital and productivity in the OECD," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 41-45, September.
    56. Romer, Paul M, 1990. "Endogenous Technological Change," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 71-102, October.
    57. Bart Los & Bart Verspagen, 2000. "R&D spillovers and productivity: Evidence from U.S. manufacturing microdata," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 25(1), pages 127-148.
    58. Richard R. Nelson, 1959. "The Simple Economics of Basic Scientific Research," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67, pages 297-297.
    59. Bart Verspagen, 1997. "Estimating international technology spillovers using technology flow matrices," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 133(2), pages 226-248, June.
    60. Murray Brown & Alfred H. Conrad, 1967. "The Influence of Research and Education on CES Production Relations," NBER Chapters, in: The Theory and Empirical Analysis of Production, pages 341-394, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    61. Pilat, Dirk & Rao, D S Prasada, 1996. "Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Productivity, and Purchasing Power Parities in Manufacturing," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(2), pages 113-130, June.
    62. Carmen López Pueyo & Jaime Sanaú & Sara Barcenilla, 2005. "Externalidades tecnológicas internacionales y productividad de la manufactura: un análisis sectorial," Documentos de Trabajo dt2005-02, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Zaragoza.
    63. F. M. Scherer, 1965. "Corporate Inventive Output, Profits, and Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 290-290.
    64. Crespo Jorge & Martín Carmela & Velázquez Francisco J, 2004. "The Role of International Technology Spillovers in the Economic Growth of the OECD Countries," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 4(2), pages 1-20, December.
    65. Dosi, Giovanni, 1988. "Sources, Procedures, and Microeconomic Effects of Innovation," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 26(3), pages 1120-1171, September.
    66. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input, and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(365), pages 73-86, March.
    67. Greenaway, David & Foster, Neil, 2002. "North-South Trade, Knowledge Spillovers and Growth," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 17, pages 650-670.
    68. Hans van Meijl, 1997. "Measuring the Impact of Direct and Indirect R&D on the Productivity Growth of Industries: Using the Yale Technology Concordance," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 205-211.
    69. Charles R. Hulten, 2001. "Total Factor Productivity: A Short Biography," NBER Chapters, in: New Developments in Productivity Analysis, pages 1-54, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    70. Bart Verspagen, 1997. "Measuring Intersectoral Technology Spillovers: Estimates from the European and US Patent Office Databases," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 47-65.
    71. Verspagen, Bart, 1992. "Endogenous innovation in neoclassical growth models: A survey," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 631-662.
    72. Dirk Pilat & D. S. Prasada Rao, 1996. "Multilateral Comparisons Of Output, Productivity, And Purchasing Power Parities In Manufacturing," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 42(2), pages 113-130, June.
    73. Schmookler, Jacob, 1962. "Economic Sources of Inventive Activity," The Journal of Economic History, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(1), pages 1-20, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Duan, Yunlong & Liu, Shuling & Cheng, Hao & Chin, Tachia & Luo, Xuan, 2021. "The moderating effect of absorptive capacity on transnational knowledge spillover and the innovation quality of high-tech industries in host countries: Evidence from the Chinese manufacturing industry," International Journal of Production Economics, Elsevier, vol. 233(C).
    2. Bianco, Dominique & Niang, Abdou-Aziz, 2012. "On international spillovers," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 280-282.
    3. Messinis, George & Ahmed, Abdullahi D., 2013. "Cognitive skills, innovation and technology diffusion," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 565-578.
    4. Mitze, Timo & Naveed, Amjad & Ahmad, Nisar, 2016. "International, intersectoral, or unobservable? Measuring R&D spillovers under weak and strong cross-sectional dependence," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 259-272.
    5. Hala Abou-Ali & Mohammed Belhaj, 2008. "Cost Benefit Analysis of Desert Locusts Control: A Multicountry Perspective," Working Papers 801, Economic Research Forum, revised 01 Jan 2008.
    6. Fei, Li & Dong, Suocheng & Xue, Li & Liang, Quanxi & Yang, Wangzhou, 2011. "Energy consumption-economic growth relationship and carbon dioxide emissions in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 568-574, February.
    7. Chen, Feiqiong & Meng, Qiaoshuang & Li, Xueying, 2018. "Cross-border post-merger integration and technology innovation: A resource-based view," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 229-238.
    8. Boutheina Abassi & Moez El Elj, 2022. "R&D internationalisation and sector productivity: a host country perspective," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 2(11), pages 1-18, November.
    9. Miremadi, I. & Saboohi, Y. & Arasti, M., 2019. "The influence of public R&D and knowledge spillovers on the development of renewable energy sources: The case of the Nordic countries," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 146(C), pages 450-463.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Neil Foster-McGregor, 2012. "Innovation and Technology Transfer across Countries," wiiw Research Reports 380, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    2. Madsen, Jakob B., 2007. "Technology spillover through trade and TFP convergence: 135 years of evidence for the OECD countries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 464-480, July.
    3. Gong, Guan & Keller, Wolfgang, 2003. "Convergence and polarization in global income levels: a review of recent results on the role of international technology diffusion," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1055-1079, June.
    4. Michael Peneder & Karl Aiginger & Gernot Hutschenreiter & Markus Marterbauer, 2001. "Structural Change and Economic Growth," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 20668, March.
    5. Coe, David T. & Helpman, Elhanan & Hoffmaister, Alexander W., 2009. "International R&D spillovers and institutions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(7), pages 723-741, October.
    6. Damijan, Jože P. & Kostevc, Crt, 2007. "Knowledge Transfer, Innovation and Growth," Papers DYNREG06, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    7. Capolupo, Rosa, 2009. "The New Growth Theories and Their Empirics after Twenty Years," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel), vol. 3, pages 1-72.
    8. Hall, Bronwyn H. & Mairesse, Jacques & Mohnen, Pierre, 2010. "Measuring the Returns to R&D," Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, in: Bronwyn H. Hall & Nathan Rosenberg (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1033-1082, Elsevier.
    9. Markus Eberhardt & Christian Helmers & Hubert Strauss, 2013. "Do Spillovers Matter When Estimating Private Returns to R&D?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(2), pages 436-448, May.
    10. Ugur, Mehmet & Churchill, Sefa Awaworyi & Luong, Hoang M., 2020. "What do we know about R&D spillovers and productivity? Meta-analysis evidence on heterogeneity and statistical power," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(1).
    11. Hala Abou-Ali & Mohammed Belhaj, 2008. "Cost Benefit Analysis of Desert Locusts Control: A Multicountry Perspective," Working Papers 801, Economic Research Forum, revised 01 Jan 2008.
    12. Andrea Fracasso & Giuseppe Vittucci Marzetti, 2013. "An empirical note on international R&D spillovers," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(1), pages 179-191, August.
    13. Keller, Wolfgang, 2010. "International Trade, Foreign Direct Investment, and Technology Spillovers," Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, in: Bronwyn H. Hall & Nathan Rosenberg (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 793-829, Elsevier.
    14. Jorge Crespo & Carmela Martin & Francisco Javier Velázquez, 2002. "International technology diffusion through imports and its impact on economic growth," European Economy Group Working Papers 12, European Economy Group.
    15. Fedderke, J.W. & Bogetic, Z., 2009. "Infrastructure and Growth in South Africa: Direct and Indirect Productivity Impacts of 19 Infrastructure Measures," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 1522-1539, September.
    16. Ugur, Mehmet & Trushin, Eshref & Solomon, Edna & Guidi, Francesco, 2016. "R&D and productivity in OECD firms and industries: A hierarchical meta-regression analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(10), pages 2069-2086.
    17. Fulvio Castellacci, 2007. "Technological regimes and sectoral differences in productivity growth ," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 16(6), pages 1105-1145, December.
    18. Jože P. Damijan & Andreja Jaklič & Matija Rojec, 2006. "Do External Knowledge Spillovers Induce Firms’ Innovations? Evidence from Slovenia," Palgrave Macmillan Books, in: Ana Teresa Tavares & Aurora Teixeira (ed.), Multinationals, Clusters and Innovation, chapter 3, pages 27-47, Palgrave Macmillan.
    19. Franco, Chiara & Montresor, Sandro & Vittucci Marzetti, Giuseppe, 2011. "On indirect trade-related R&D spillovers: The "Average Propagation Length" of foreign R&D," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 227-237, September.
    20. Jakob B. Madsen & Minoo Farhadi, 2018. "International Technology Spillovers and Growth over the Past 142 Years: The Role of Genetic Proximity," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 85(338), pages 329-359, April.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:streco:v:19:y:2008:i:2:p:152-172. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/525148 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/525148 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.