The impact of Integrated Tariff Systems on public transport demand: Evidence from Italy
The increasing problems of pollution and traffic congestion require the definition of a model of sustainable mobility -- in particular, in large, urban areas. An indirect control on these negative externalities associated with private transport may be pursued by means of policies aimed at improving quality and accessibility of public transit networks. To that end, one popular option is the design of an Integrated Tariff System (ITS): the crucial question remains whether such a policy can be effective in raising the number of public transport users. In this study, we use a twelve-year panel of 69 Italian public transit providers (with or without ITS) and estimate alternative specifications of the demand function. Results show that the impact due to ITS introduction is, on average, moderate. Results also highlight the importance of taking into account the specific features of ITS, such as its validity over an extended network, the availability of a single ticket option, and the application of zonal pricing schemes.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Javier Asensio & Anna Matas & JosÃ©-Luis Raymond, 2003. "Redistributive effects of subsidies to urban public transport in Spain," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(4), pages 433-452, July.
- Philippe Gagnepain & Marc Ivaldi, 2002.
"Incentive Regulatory Policies: The Case of Public Transit Systems in France,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 33(4), pages 605-629, Winter.
- Gagnepain, P. & Ivaldi, M., 1999. "Incentive Regulatory Policies: the Case of Public Transit Systems in France," Papers 99.515, Toulouse - GREMAQ.
- Philippe Gagnepain & Marc Ivaldi, 2002. "Incentive Regulatory policies: The Case of Public Transit Systems in France," Post-Print hal-00622846, HAL.
- Gagnepain, Philippe & Ivaldi, Marc, 1999. "Incentive Regulatory Policies: The Case of Public Transit Systems in France," IDEI Working Papers 84, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Bruno, Giovanni S.F., 2005. "Approximating the bias of the LSDV estimator for dynamic unbalanced panel data models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 361-366, June.
- Giovanni S.F. Bruno, 2004. "Approximating the Bias of the LSDV Estimator for Dynamic Unbalanced Panel Data Models," KITeS Working Papers 159, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jul 2004.
- Carla Marchese, 2006. "The economic rationale for integrated tariffs in local public transport," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 40(4), pages 875-885, December.
- Bun, Maurice J. G. & Kiviet, Jan F., 2003. "On the diminishing returns of higher-order terms in asymptotic expansions of bias," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(2), pages 145-152, May.
- Maurice J.G. Bun & Jan F. Kiviet, 2002. "On the Diminishing Returns of Higher-order Terms in Asymptotic Expansions of Bias," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 02-099/4, Tinbergen Institute, revised 24 Oct 2002.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, "undated". "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Kennedy, Peter E, 1981. "Estimation with Correctly Interpreted Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations [The Interpretation of Dummy Variables in Semilogarithmic Equations]," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 71(4), pages 801-801, September.
- Alberto Cassone & Carla Marchese, 2005. "Welfare Effects of Price Integration in Local Public Transport," Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 76(2), pages 257-274, 06.
- Felix Fitzroy & Ian Smith, 1993. "The Demand for Public Transport: Some Estimates from Zurich," CRIEFF Discussion Papers 9308, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
- Kiviet, Jan F., 1995. "On bias, inconsistency, and efficiency of various estimators in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 53-78, July.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "LSDVC: RATS procedure to estimate a dynamic FE model with correction for bias," Statistical Software Components RTS00111, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Stephen Bond, 2002. "Dynamic panel data models: a guide to microdata methods and practice," CeMMAP working papers CWP09/02, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Winston, Clifford, 1985. "Conceptual Development in the Economics of Transportation: An Interpretive Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 23(1), pages 57-94, March.
- Joyce M. Dargay & Mark Hanly, 2002. "The Demand for Local Bus Services in England," Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, University of Bath, vol. 36(1), pages 73-91, January.
- Kraus, Marvin, 2008. "Economies of scale in networks," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 171-177, July.
- Luigi Benfratello & Massimiliano Piacenza & Stefano Sacchetto, 2009. "Taste or reputation: what drives market prices in the wine industry? Estimation of a hedonic model for Italian premium wines," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(17), pages 2197-2209.
- FitzRoy, Felix & Smith, Ian, 1999. "Season Tickets and the Demand for Public Transport," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 219-238.
- Felix R FitzRoy & Ian Smith, 1998. "Season Tickets and the Demand for Public Transport," CRIEFF Discussion Papers 9802, Centre for Research into Industry, Enterprise, Finance and the Firm.
- Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Judson, Ruth A. & Owen, Ann L., 1999. "Estimating dynamic panel data models: a guide for macroeconomists," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 9-15, October.
- Windmeijer, Frank, 2005. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear efficient two-step GMM estimators," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 126(1), pages 25-51, May. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)