IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Nonlinear trends in real exchange rates: A panel unit root test approach

  • Cushman, David O.
  • Michael, Nils

We analyze the possibility of nonlinear trend stationarity as the alternative to unit roots in 23 OECD real exchange rates, 1974–1998, by adding nonlinear time terms to the CIPS panel unit root test of Pesaran (2007). We follow a thorough bootstrapping approach and propose a technique to adjust statistical significance for the use of multiple tests over several time trend orders. The unit root null that all real exchange rates have unit roots is rejected at better than the 0.05 level. Bootstrapped results from a procedure of Chortareas and Kapetanios (2009) suggest that the hypothesis that all are stationary is reasonable. We argue that nonlinear trend stationarity is the most likely alternative hypothesis for at least some of the real exchange rates because: (1) the strongest CIPS rejection occurs when quadratic trends are specified; (2) nonlinear time terms are statistically significant at the 0.10 level; (3) the actual CIPS statistics are more consistent with CIPS sampling distributions from bootstrapped nonlinear trend stationary processes than from linear trend or mean stationary processes.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of International Money and Finance.

Volume (Year): 30 (2011)
Issue (Month): 8 ()
Pages: 1619-1637

in new window

Handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:30:y:2011:i:8:p:1619-1637
Contact details of provider: Web page:

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Mario Cerrato & Christian de Peretti & Rolf Larsson & Nicholas Sarantis, 2011. "A nonlinear panel unit root test under cross section dependence," Working Papers 2011_08, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  2. Yoosoon Chang, 2000. "Bootstrap Unit Root Tests in Panels with Cross-Sectional Dependency," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1585, Econometric Society.
  3. Lothian, James R., 1997. "Multi-country evidence on the behavior of purchasing power parity under the current float," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 19-35, February.
  4. Giovanni Ganelli, 2002. "The New Open Economy Macroeconomics of Government Debt," Trinity Economics Papers 200214, Trinity College Dublin, Department of Economics.
  5. Papell, David H., 2006. "The Panel Purchasing Power Parity Puzzle," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(2), pages 447-467, March.
  6. Stock, James H. & Watson, Mark W., 1999. "Business cycle fluctuations in us macroeconomic time series," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 3-64 Elsevier.
  7. Georgios Chortareas & George Kapetanios, 2004. "Getting PPP Right: Identifying Mean Reverting Real Exchange Rates in Panels," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2004 32, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
  8. Charles Engel, 1999. "Accounting for U.S. Real Exchange Rate Changes," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 107(3), pages 507-538, June.
  9. David O. Cushman, 2008. "Real exchange rates may have nonlinear trends," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(2), pages 158-173.
  10. Claude Lopez, 2004. "Evidence of Purchasing Power Parity for the Floating Regime Period," University of Cincinnati, Economics Working Papers Series 2004-01, University of Cincinnati, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2006.
  11. Taylor, Mark P & Peel, David A & Sarno, Lucio, 2001. "Nonlinear Mean-Reversion in Real Exchange Rates: Toward a Solution to the Purchasing Power Parity Puzzles," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1015-42, November.
  12. Sollis, Robert, 2008. "U.S. dollar real exchange rates: Nonlinearity revisited," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 516-528, June.
  13. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-52, Special I.
  14. Yoosoon Chang, 2000. "Nonlinear IV Unit Root Tests in Panels with Cross-Sectional Dependency," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-85, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  15. Engle, Robert F, 1982. "Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity with Estimates of the Variance of United Kingdom Inflation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 987-1007, July.
  16. Taylor, Alan M. & Taylor, Mark P, 2004. "The Purchasing Power Parity Debate," CEPR Discussion Papers 4495, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  17. González Andrés & Teräsvirta Timo, 2008. "Modelling Autoregressive Processes with a Shifting Mean," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-28, March.
  18. Claude Lopez, 2003. "An Improved Panel Unit Root Test Using GLS-Detrending," Econometrics 0310006, EconWPA, revised 24 Oct 2003.
  19. Wu, Jyh-Lin & Wu, Shaowen, 2001. "Is Purchasing Power Parity Overvalued?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 804-12, August.
  20. Jeffrey A. Frankel and Andrew K. Rose., 1995. "A Panel Project on Purchasing Power Parity: Mean Reversion Within and Between Countries," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers C95-052, University of California at Berkeley.
  21. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 1994. "Exchange Rate Dynamics Redux," NBER Working Papers 4693, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Elliott, Graham & Rothenberg, Thomas J & Stock, James H, 1996. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 64(4), pages 813-36, July.
  23. Dworak, Maria & Wirl, Franz & Prskawetz, Alexia & Feichtinger, Gustav, 2002. "Optimal Long-Run Budgetary Policies Subject To The Maastricht Criteria Or A Stability Pact," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 6(05), pages 665-686, November.
  24. Papell, David H., 1997. "Searching for stationarity: Purchasing power parity under the current float," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(3-4), pages 313-332, November.
  25. Abuaf, Niso & Jorion, Philippe, 1990. " Purchasing Power Parity in the Long Run," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(1), pages 157-74, March.
  26. Mariam Camarero, 2006. "The real exchange rate of the dollar for a panel of OECD countries: Balassa-Samuelson or distribution sector effect?," Working Papers 06-04, Asociación Española de Economía y Finanzas Internacionales.
  27. Meese, R. & Rogoff, K., 1988. "Was It Real? The Exchange Rate-Interest Differential Ralation Over The Modern Floating-Rate Period," Working papers 368, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  28. Claude Lopez & David H. Papell, 2003. "Convergence to Purchasing Power Parity at the Commencement of the Euro," Macroeconomics 0310008, EconWPA.
  29. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
  30. McCallum, Bennett T., 1996. "International Monetary Economics," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195094947.
  31. Taylor, Mark P. & Sarno, Lucio, 1998. "The behavior of real exchange rates during the post-Bretton Woods period," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 281-312, December.
  32. Bela Balassa, 1964. "The Purchasing-Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72, pages 584.
  33. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  34. Kuo, Biing-Shen & Mikkola, Anne, 2001. "How Sure Are We about Purchasing Power Parity? Panel Evidence with the Null of Stationary Real Exchange Rates," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 767-89, August.
  35. Oh, Keun-Yeob, 1996. "Purchasing power parity and unit root tests using panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 405-418, June.
  36. Papell, David H & Theodoridis, Hristos, 2001. "The Choice of Numeraire Currency in Panel Tests of Purchasing Power Parity," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 790-803, August.
  37. Wu, Yangru, 1996. "Are Real Exchange Rates Nonstationary? Evidence from a Panel-Data Test," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 28(1), pages 54-63, February.
  38. Bierens, Herman J., 1997. "Testing the unit root with drift hypothesis against nonlinear trend stationarity, with an application to the US price level and interest rate," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 29-64, November.
  39. Robert A. Mundell, 1962. "The Appropriate Use of Monetary and Fiscal Policy for Internal and External Stability," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 9(1), pages 70-79, March.
  40. Roberto Ricciuti, 2008. "The quest for a fiscal rule: Italy, 1861–1998," Cliometrica, Journal of Historical Economics and Econometric History, Association Française de Cliométrie (AFC), vol. 2(3), pages 259-274, October.
  41. Papell, David H & Prodan, Ruxandra, 2004. "The Uncertain Unit Root in U.S. Real GDP: Evidence with Restricted and Unrestricted Structural Change," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 423-27, June.
  42. Cushman David O., 2002. "Nonlinear Trends and Co-trending in Canadian Money Demand," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 6(1), pages 1-29, April.
  43. Jorion, Philippe & Sweeney, Richard J., 1996. "Mean reversion in real exchange rates: evidence and implications for forecasting," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 535-550, August.
  44. L. Vanessa Smith & Stephen Leybourne & Tae-Hwan Kim & Paul Newbold, 2004. "More powerful panel data unit root tests with an application to mean reversion in real exchange rates," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(2), pages 147-170.
  45. Koedijk, Kees G. & Tims, Ben & van Dijk, Mathijs A., 2011. "Why panel tests of purchasing power parity should allow for heterogeneous mean reversion," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 246-267, February.
  46. Devereux, Michael B, 1999. "Real Exchange Rate Trends and Growth: A Model of East Asia," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(3), pages 509-21, August.
  47. Vougas, Dimitrios V., 2007. "Is the trend in post-WW II US real GDP uncertain or non-linear?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 94(3), pages 348-355, March.
  48. Hooper, Peter & Morton, John, 1982. "Fluctuations in the dollar: A model of nominal and real exchange rate determination," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 39-56, January.
  49. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
  50. G. Duggal, Vijaya & Saltzman, Cynthia & Klein, Lawrence R., 1999. "Infrastructure and productivity: a nonlinear approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 47-74, September.
  51. MacDonald, Ronald, 1996. "Panel unit root tests and real exchange rates," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 7-11, January.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jimfin:v:30:y:2011:i:8:p:1619-1637. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.