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Selling company shares to reluctant employees: France Telecom's experience

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  • Degeorge, Francois
  • Jenter, Dirk
  • Moel, Alberto
  • Tufano, Peter

Abstract

In 1997, France T‚l‚com, the state-owned French telephone company, went through a partial privatization. The government offered current and prior France T‚l‚com employees the opportunity to buy portfolios of shares with various combinations of discounts, required holding periods, leverage, tax treatment, and levels of downside protection. We adapt a neoclassical model of investment decision-making that takes into account firm-specific human capital and holding period restrictions to predict how employees might respond to the share offers. Using a database that tracks over 200,000 eligible participants, we analyze the employees' characteristics and their decisions whether to participate; how much to invest; and what form of stock alternatives they selected.
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  • Degeorge, Francois & Jenter, Dirk & Moel, Alberto & Tufano, Peter, 2004. "Selling company shares to reluctant employees: France Telecom's experience," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 169-202, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:71:y:2004:i:1:p:169-202
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    Cited by:

    1. Aubert, Nicolas & Garnotel, Guillaume & Lapied, André & Rousseau, Patrick, 2014. "Employee ownership: A theoretical and empirical investigation of management entrenchment vs. reward management," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 423-434.
    2. Nicolas Aubert, 2006. "Understanding Employer's Stock Holdings in the French Company Savings Plans Using the Literature on the American 401(k) plans," Post-Print halshs-00188518, HAL.
    3. Nicolas Aubert & Thomas Rapp, 2010. "Employee's investment behaviors in a company based savings plan," Finance, Presses universitaires de Grenoble, vol. 31(1), pages 5-32.
    4. Francisco Gomes & Alexander Michaelides, 2005. "Optimal Life-Cycle Asset Allocation: Understanding the Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(2), pages 869-904, April.
    5. Alexander Klos & Martin Weber, 2006. "Portfolio Choice in the Presence of Non-Tradable Income: An Experimental Analysis," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7, pages 427-448, November.
    6. Glenn W. Boyle & Graeme A. Guthrie, 2005. "Human Capital and Popular Investment Advice," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 9(2), pages 139-164.
    7. Zacharias Sautner & Martin Weber, 2009. "How Do Managers Behave In Stock Option Plans? Clinical Evidence From Exercise And Survey Data," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 123-155.
    8. Sautner, Zacharias & Weber, Martin, 2005. "Stock Options and Employee Behavior," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 05-26, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
    9. Nicolas Aubert & Bernard Grand & André Lapied & Patrick Rousseau, 2009. "Is employee ownership so senseless," Finance, Presses universitaires de Grenoble, vol. 30(2), pages 5-29.
    10. Sautner, Zacharias & Weber, Martin, 2005. "Subjective Stock Option Values and Exercise Decisions: Determinants and Consistency," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 05-31, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
    11. Thomas Rapp & Nicolas Aubert, 2011. "Bank Employee Incentives and Stock Purchase Plans Participation," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 185-203, December.
    12. Nicolas Aubert, 2008. "Developing an Ownership Culture with Employee Share Purchase Plans: Evidence from France," Zeitschrift fuer Personalforschung. German Journal of Research in Human Resource Management, Rainer Hampp Verlag, vol. 22(2), pages 130-151.
    13. Hibbert, Ann Marie & Lawrence, Edward R. & Prakash, Arun J., 2013. "Does knowledge of finance mitigate the gender difference in financial risk-aversion?," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 140-152.
    14. Agarwal,Sumit & Morais,Bernardo & Ruiz Ortega,Claudia & Zhang,Jian, 2016. "The political economy of bank lending : evidence from an emerging market," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7577, The World Bank.
    15. Francisco Gomes & Alex Michaelides, 2003. "(UBS Pensions series 20) Optimal Life-Cycle Asset Allocation: Understanding the Empirical Evidence," FMG Discussion Papers dp474, Financial Markets Group.
    16. Dong Lee, 2009. "How Do Employees View Their Underwater Stock Options?: Evidence from the Stock Option Exchange Program," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 35(3), pages 273-296, June.
    17. Philippe Desbrières, 2002. "Les actionnaires salariés," Working Papers CREGO 1021101, Université de Bourgogne - CREGO EA7317 Centre de recherches en gestion des organisations.

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    JEL classification:

    • G0 - Financial Economics - - General
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)

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