IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/inteco/v166y2021icp71-94.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The impact of services trade restrictiveness on food trade

Author

Abstract

This paper examines the effects of restrictions in logistics, transportation, distribution, finance and other business sectors on food trade. We use a gravity model with panel data from 2014 to 2018 across 36 OECD countries, OECD indices of individual country restrictions and regulatory differences by country pair to capture the level of restrictions in these sectors. The results suggest that higher restrictions in the logistics and transport sector lead to lower exports of food commodities. Also, restrictions in the financial and other business sectors are associated with lower imports. Interestingly, restrictions in the distribution sector have positive and significant effects on both exports and imports of food products. The sectors most affected are food, live animals and perishable products (milk, eggs and meat). The regulatory disparity has a significant negative impact on food trade. This impact decreases when the exporter country is closed to service providers. The deregulation or harmonization of these measures would be highly beneficial to food trade.

Suggested Citation

  • Zongo, Amara, 2021. "The impact of services trade restrictiveness on food trade," International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 71-94.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:inteco:v:166:y:2021:i:c:p:71-94
    DOI: 10.1016/j.inteco.2021.02.003
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2110701721000147
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1016/j.inteco.2021.02.003?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Anderson, James & Larch, Mario & Yotov, Yoto, 2015. "Growth and Trade with Frictions: A Structural Estimation Framework," School of Economics Working Paper Series 2015-2, LeBow College of Business, Drexel University.
    2. Baldwin, Richard & Taglioni, Daria, 2006. "Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations," CEPR Discussion Papers 5850, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Piermartini, Roberta & Yotov, Yoto, 2016. "Estimating Trade Policy Effects with Structural Gravity," School of Economics Working Paper Series 2016-10, LeBow College of Business, Drexel University.
    4. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry & Ries, John, 2009. "How remote is the offshoring threat?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 53(4), pages 429-444, May.
    5. Anderson, James E. & Yotov, Yoto V., 2016. "Terms of trade and global efficiency effects of free trade agreements, 1990–2002," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 279-298.
    6. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry & Ries, John, 2010. "The erosion of colonial trade linkages after independence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 1-14, May.
    7. Beverelli, Cosimo & Fiorini, Matteo & Hoekman, Bernard, 2017. "Services trade policy and manufacturing productivity: The role of institutions," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 166-182.
    8. Arnold, Jens M. & Javorcik, Beata S. & Mattoo, Aaditya, 2011. "Does services liberalization benefit manufacturing firms?: Evidence from the Czech Republic," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 136-146, September.
    9. Thomas Chaney, 2008. "Distorted Gravity: The Intensive and Extensive Margins of International Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 98(4), pages 1707-1721, September.
    10. Maria Bas, 2014. "Does services liberalization affect manufacturing firms’ export performance? Evidence from India," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-01297201, HAL.
    11. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
    12. James E. Anderson & Yoto V. Yotov, 2012. "Gold Standard Gravity," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 795, Boston College Department of Economics.
    13. Crozet, Matthieu & Milet, Emmanuel & Mirza, Daniel, 2016. "The impact of domestic regulations on international trade in services: Evidence from firm-level data," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 585-607.
    14. Mario Larch & Yoto V. Yotov, 2016. "General Equilibrium Trade Policy Analysis with Structural Gravity," CESifo Working Paper Series 6020, CESifo.
    15. Martin, Will & Pham, Cong S., 2008. "Estimating the gravity model when zero trade flows are frequent," Working Papers eco_2008_03, Deakin University, Department of Economics.
    16. Dennis Novy, 2013. "Gravity Redux: Measuring International Trade Costs With Panel Data," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(1), pages 101-121, January.
    17. Eaton Jonathan & Tamura Akiko, 1994. "Bilateralism and Regionalism in Japanese and U.S. Trade and Direct Foreign Investment Patterns," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 478-510, December.
    18. Keith Head & John Ries, 2001. "Increasing Returns versus National Product Differentiation as an Explanation for the Pattern of U.S.-Canada Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 858-876, September.
    19. Delina E. Agnosteva & James E. Anderson & Yoto V. Yotov, 2014. "Intra-national Trade Costs: Measurement and Aggregation," NBER Working Papers 19872, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    20. James E. Anderson & Mario Larch & Yoto V. Yotov, 2015. "Estimating General Equilibrium Trade Policy Effects: GE PPML," CESifo Working Paper Series 5592, CESifo.
    21. Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-959, December.
    22. Mary Amiti & David E. Weinstein, 2011. "Exports and Financial Shocks," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(4), pages 1841-1877.
    23. Trefler, Daniel, 1993. "Trade Liberalization and the Theory of Endogenous Protection: An Econometric Study of U.S. Import Policy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(1), pages 138-160, February.
    24. Bricongne, Jean-Charles & Fontagné, Lionel & Gaulier, Guillaume & Taglioni, Daria & Vicard, Vincent, 2012. "Firms and the global crisis: French exports in the turmoil," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 134-146.
    25. Ariu, Andrea & Mayneris, Florian & Parenti, Mathieu, 2020. "One way to the top: How services boost the demand for goods," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    26. Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2008. "Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 123(2), pages 441-487.
    27. Baier, Scott L. & Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., 2009. "Estimating the effects of free trade agreements on international trade flows using matching econometrics," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(1), pages 63-76, February.
    28. Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Massimo Geloso Grosso & Frédéric Gonzales & Iza Lejárraga & Sébastien Miroudot & Asako Ueno & Dorothée Rouzet, 2014. "Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Computer and Related Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers 169, OECD Publishing.
    29. María Pía Olivero & Yoto V. Yotov, 2012. "Dynamic gravity: endogenous country size and asset accumulation," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 45(1), pages 64-92, February.
    30. Daniel Trefler, 2004. "The Long and Short of the Canada-U. S. Free Trade Agreement," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(4), pages 870-895, September.
    31. Maria Bas, 2014. "Does services liberalization affect manufacturing firms’ export performance? Evidence from India," Post-Print hal-01297201, HAL.
    32. Chor, Davin & Manova, Kalina, 2012. "Off the cliff and back? Credit conditions and international trade during the global financial crisis," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 117-133.
    33. Niven Winchester & Marie-Luise Rau & Christian Goetz & Bruno Larue & Tsunehiro Otsuki & Karl Shutes & Christine Wieck & Heloisa L. Burnquist & Maurício J. Pinto de Souza & Rosane Nunes de Faria, 2012. "The Impact of Regulatory Heterogeneity on Agri-food Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(8), pages 973-993, August.
    34. Dorothée Rouzet & Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Frédéric Gonzales & Massimo Geloso Grosso & Iza Lejárraga & Sébastien Miroudot & Asako Ueno, 2014. "Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Financial Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers 175, OECD Publishing.
    35. Erik Marel & Ben Shepherd, 2013. "Services Trade, Regulation and Regional Integration: Evidence from Sectoral Data," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(11), pages 1393-1405, November.
    36. Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Iza Lejárraga & Sébastien Miroudot & Frédéric Gonzales & Massimo Geloso Grosso & Dorothée Rouzet & Asako Ueno, 2014. "Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Audio-visual Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers 174, OECD Publishing.
    37. Duggan, Victor & Rahardja, Sjamsu & Varela, Gonzalo, 2013. "Service sector reform and manufacturing productivity : evidence from Indonesia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6349, The World Bank.
    38. Massimo Geloso Grosso & Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Frédéric Gonzales & Iza Lejárraga & Sébastien Miroudot & Asako Ueno & Dorothée Rouzet, 2014. "Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Legal and Accounting Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers 171, OECD Publishing.
    39. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1989. "The Generalized Gravity Equation, Monopolistic Competition, and the Factor-Proportions Theory in International Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 143-153, February.
    40. Andrea Ariu, 2016. "Services versus goods trade: a firm-level comparison," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(1), pages 19-41, February.
    41. Massimo Geloso Grosso & Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Asako Ueno & Frédéric Gonzales & Iza Lejárraga & Sébastien Miroudot & Dorothée Rouzet, 2014. "Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Transport and Courier Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers 176, OECD Publishing.
    42. Baier, Scott L. & Bergstrand, Jeffrey H., 2007. "Do free trade agreements actually increase members' international trade?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 72-95, March.
    43. Anne-Célia Disdier & Keith Head, 2008. "The Puzzling Persistence of the Distance Effect on Bilateral Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(1), pages 37-48, February.
    44. Massimo Geloso Grosso & Iza Lejárraga & Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Frédéric Gonzales & Sébastien Miroudot & Asako Ueno & Dorothée Rouzet, 2014. "Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Construction, Architecture and Engineering Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers 170, OECD Publishing.
    45. Egger, Peter H. & Nigai, Sergey, 2015. "Structural gravity with dummies only: Constrained ANOVA-type estimation of gravity models," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 86-99.
    46. Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Massimo Geloso Grosso & Enrico Pinali, 2008. "Market Structure in the Distribution Sector and Merchandise Trade," OECD Trade Policy Papers 68, OECD Publishing.
    47. Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Massimo Geloso Grosso & Frédéric Gonzales & Iza Lejárraga & Molly Lesher & Sébastien Miroudot & Asako Ueno & Dorothée Rouzet, 2014. "Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Telecommunication Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers 172, OECD Publishing.
    48. Andrea Ariu, 2016. "Services versus goods trade: a firm-level comparison," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 152(1), pages 19-41, February.
    49. Samanatha Doove & Owen Gabbitas & Duc Nguyen-Hong & Joe Owen, 2001. "Price Effects of Regulation: Telecommunications, Air Passenger Transport and Electricity Supply," Others 0110004, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    50. Bas, Maria, 2014. "Does services liberalization affect manufacturing firms’ export performance? Evidence from India," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 569-589.
    51. Asako Ueno & Massimo Geloso Grosso & Iza Lejárraga & Hildegunn Kyvik Nordås & Sébastien Miroudot & Frédéric Gonzales & Dorothée Rouzet, 2014. "Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI): Distribution Services," OECD Trade Policy Papers 173, OECD Publishing.
    52. Anderson, James E, 1979. "A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 106-116, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zongo, Amara, 2020. "The Impact of Services Trade Restrictiveness on Food Trade," MPRA Paper 101658, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Piermartini, Roberta & Yotov, Yoto, 2016. "Estimating Trade Policy Effects with Structural Gravity," School of Economics Working Paper Series 2016-10, LeBow College of Business, Drexel University.
    3. Scott L. Baier & Amanda Kerr & Yoto V. Yotov, 2018. "Gravity, distance, and international trade," Chapters, in: Bruce A. Blonigen & Wesley W. Wilson (ed.), Handbook of International Trade and Transportation, chapter 2, pages 15-78, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    4. Anderson, James E. & Borchert, Ingo & Mattoo, Aaditya & Yotov, Yoto V., 2018. "Dark costs, missing data: Shedding some light on services trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 105(C), pages 193-214.
    5. Mario Larch & Yoto V. Yotov, 2016. "General Equilibrium Trade Policy Analysis with Structural Gravity," CESifo Working Paper Series 6020, CESifo.
    6. Anderson, James E. & Yotov, Yoto V., 2020. "Short run gravity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 126(C).
    7. Head, Keith & Mayer, Thierry, 2014. "Gravity Equations: Workhorse,Toolkit, and Cookbook," Handbook of International Economics, in: Gopinath, G. & Helpman, . & Rogoff, K. (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 0, pages 131-195, Elsevier.
    8. Mario Larch & Yoto Yotov, 2017. "On the impact of TTIP in Southeastern and Eastern Europe: A quantitative analysis," Economic Thought journal, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences - Economic Research Institute, issue 3, pages 54-73,74-92.
    9. Maria Cipollina & Luca De Benedictis & Luca Salvatici & Claudio Vicarelli, 2016. "Policy Measurement And Multilateral Resistance In Gravity Models," Working Papers LuissLab 16130, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza, LUISS Guido Carli.
    10. Chen, Natalie & Novy, Dennis, 2011. "Gravity, trade integration, and heterogeneity across industries," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 206-221.
    11. Masood, Maria, 2019. "New evidence on income and the geographical distribution of imports: The case of audiovisuals," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 717-734.
    12. Kox, Henk L.M. & Rojas Romasgosa, Hugo, 2019. "Gravity estimations with FDI bilateral data: Potential FDI effects of deep preferential trade agreements," MPRA Paper 96318, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Marie M Stack & Rob Ackrill & Martin Bliss, 2019. "Sugar trade and the role of historical colonial linkages," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 46(1), pages 79-108.
    14. Katharina Längle, 2020. "Upgrading of Exports: Does the Integration into Trade Agreements Pave the Way to Product Upgrading?," Documents de travail du Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne 20006, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1), Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne.
    15. Costinot, Arnaud & Rodríguez-Clare, Andrés, 2014. "Trade Theory with Numbers: Quantifying the Consequences of Globalization," Handbook of International Economics, in: Gopinath, G. & Helpman, . & Rogoff, K. (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 0, pages 197-261, Elsevier.
    16. Heid, Benedikt & Larch, Mario, 2016. "Gravity with unemployment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 70-85.
    17. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H. & Larch, Mario & Yotov, Yoto V., 2015. "Economic integration agreements, border effects, and distance elasticities in the gravity equation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 307-327.
    18. Delgadillo Chavarria, Carlos Bruno, 2019. "El Efecto de la Mediterraneidad sobre el Flujo Comercial Internacional: Evidencia Empírica Internacional y para América del Sur (1990-2016) [The Effect of Landlocked Country Status on International," MPRA Paper 96294, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Sep 2019.
    19. Baier, Scott L. & Yotov, Yoto V. & Zylkin, Thomas, 2019. "On the widely differing effects of free trade agreements: Lessons from twenty years of trade integration," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 206-226.
    20. Dennis Novy, 2013. "Gravity Redux: Measuring International Trade Costs With Panel Data," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(1), pages 101-121, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Food trade; Service sector; Restrictions in services; Gravity model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • K23 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law - - - Regulated Industries and Administrative Law
    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:inteco:v:166:y:2021:i:c:p:71-94. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/21107017 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/21107017 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.