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Optimal vaccine subsidies for endemic diseases

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  • Goodkin-Gold, Matthew
  • Kremer, Michael
  • Snyder, Christopher M.
  • Williams, Heidi

Abstract

In Goodkin-Gold et al. (2021), we analyzed optimal subsidies for a vaccine against an epidemic outbreak like Covid-19. This companion paper alters the underlying epidemiological model to suit endemic diseases requiring continuous vaccination of new cohorts—also suiting an epidemic like Covid-19 if, following Gans (2020), one assumes peaks are leveled by social distancing. We obtain qualitatively similar results: across market structures ranging from perfect competition to monopoly, the subsidy needed to induce first-best vaccination coverage on the private market is highest for moderately infectious diseases, which invite the most free riding; extremely infectious diseases drive more consumers to become vaccinated, attenuating externalities. Stylized calibrations to HIV, among other diseases, suggest that first-best subsidies can be exorbitantly high when suppliers have market power, rationalizing alternative policies observed in practice such as bulk purchases negotiated by the government on behalf of the consumers.

Suggested Citation

  • Goodkin-Gold, Matthew & Kremer, Michael & Snyder, Christopher M. & Williams, Heidi, 2022. "Optimal vaccine subsidies for endemic diseases," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 84(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:indorg:v:84:y:2022:i:c:s0167718722000169
    DOI: 10.1016/j.ijindorg.2022.102840
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    1. Wang, Fan & Xu, Danni & Zhuo, Xiaopo & Zhang, Chao & Liu, Yaoqi, 2022. "Improving consumer welfare in vaccine market: Pricing, government subsidies and consumer awareness," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 167(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Vaccine; Epidemiology; Externality; Pharmaceutical;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O31 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Innovation; Research and Development; Technological Change; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Innovation and Invention: Processes and Incentives
    • L11 - Industrial Organization - - Market Structure, Firm Strategy, and Market Performance - - - Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
    • I18 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Government Policy; Regulation; Public Health
    • D42 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Monopoly

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